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Respecting Hair: The Culture and Representation of American Women's Hairstyles, 1865-90
Year of Dissertation:
Respecting Hair: The Culture and Representation of American Women's Hairstyles, 1865-90 by Elizabeth L. Block Adviser: Professor Kevin D. Murphy Using a hybrid approach that merges art historical and material culture inquiry, this dissertation recognizes the centrality of hairstyles in figure painting, both portraiture and genre, and photography of the mid- to late nineteenth century in the United States. After establishing the pervasive reach of hair's culture and industry (Chapter One), it argues that artists exploited women's hairstyles as a way to convey commentaries on such topics as conspicuous consumption and monetary wealth (Chapter Two), social class and the development of the modern woman (Chapter Three), the New Woman (Chapter Four), publicly exposed women "à la toilette" and "en déshabillé" (Chapter Five), and overt sexuality (Chapter Six). It considers the specific ways in which artists depicted hair and how that treatment helped achieve their goals. It affirms that hair deserves serious attention with regard to its cultural significance, specifically within the American art historical context of the nineteenth century, which has not been addressed in any publication to date. The study begins in the mid- to late 1860s with the considerable rise in new advertising, products, and services related to hair after the Civil War and how these phenomena were treated by artists. It proceeds to discuss the entrenchment of the Cult of True Womanhood of the 1860s and 1870s, which had a patriarchal and conservative effect on hairstyles and their depiction in art. The emergence of the New Woman, which brought about a radical consideration of hairstyles about 1890, provides an end point. By tracing the development of women's hairstyles, this dissertation contends that the study of hair should take its place with readings of other visual culture in paintings, such as clothing, furniture, and interior decoration that broaden our view into the motivations behind cultural changes. The study highlights the following artists: Aaron Draper Shattuck (1832-1928); Thomas Pritchard Rossiter (1818-1871); Eastman Johnson (1824-1906); Winslow Homer (1836-1910); Alice Austen (1866-1952); Mary Cassatt (1844-1926); and John Singer Sargent (1856-1925).
Techniques for Automatic Normalization of Orthographically Variant Yiddish Texts
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Yiddish is characterized by a multitude of orthographic systems. A number of approaches to automatic normalization of variant orthography have been explored for the processing of historic texts of languages whose orthography has since been standardized. However, these approaches have not yet been applied to Yiddish. Using a manually normalized set of 16 Yiddish documents as a training and test corpus, four techniques for automatic normalization were compared: a hand-crafted set of transformation rules, an off-the-shelf spell checker, edit distance minimization with manually set weights, and edit distance minimization with weights learned through a training set. Performance was evaluated by calculating the proportion of correctly normalized words in a test set, and by measuring precision and recall in a test of information retrieval. For the given test corpus, normalization by minimization of edit distance with multi-character edit operations and learned weights was found to perform best in all tests.
Unemployed and Poor in New York: The Impact of Object Relations, Mentalization and Psychopathology on Job Outcome
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This study examined the relationships between the quality of internal object representations of self and other (OR), the capacity for reflective functioning (RF) and the presence of Axis II psychopathology and their respective and combined impact on the ability of unemployed, low-income individuals to complete job readiness training, and to obtain and retain employment. Given the intertwining nature of these constructs, it was expected that correlations would exist between OR, RF and Axis II psychopathology and that these constructs would also be related to job outcome, such that those with low OR and RF or those with Axis II psychopathology would experience greater difficulty in completing job training, let alone obtaining and maintaining employment. This research study posed additional research questions to examine the extent to which each of these variables would account for the variance in job outcome. It also sought to investigate the extent to which the predicted relationship between OR and job outcome would be moderated or mediated by Axis II pathology or the degree of RF present, such that an individual with significant psychopathology or low RF capacity would be expected to have poor job outcome regardless of OR scores. Similarly, it examined the question of whether the proposed relationship between Axis II pathology and job outcome would be moderated or mediated by the degree of RF present, such that those with a more developed capacity for RF would have better job outcome despite the presence of Axis II pathology. Results partially supported the study's main hypotheses in that RF and Axis II pathology were not only found to be related, but also to significantly predict job outcome. Moreover, it was determined that in those cases where participants with Axis II diagnoses were able to obtain jobs, their ability to obtain the job was entirely attributable to the presence of relatively higher levels of RF. This finding suggests that the presence of even a moderate capacity to consider and to reflect upon the mental states of self and other confers an advantage on those with Axis II diagnoses in the pursuit of gaining employment. OR findings were less robust although one of the subscales of OR, Complexity of Representations, was found to be significantly associated with RF in the predicted direction. These results are discussed in relation to implications for the design of programs and interventions to assist unemployed and underserved populations.
MESSAGE PASSING TECHNIQUES FOR STATISTICAL PHYSICS AND OPTIMIZATION IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS
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Optimization problem has always been considered as a central topic in various areas of science and engineering. It aims at finding the configuration of a large number of variables with which the objective function is optimal. The close relation between optimization problems and statistical physics through the probability measure of the Boltzmann type has brought new theoretical tools from statistical physics of disordered systems to optimization problems. In this thesis, we use message passing techniques, in particular cavity method, developed in the last decades within spin glass theory to study optimization problems in complex systems. In the study of force transmission in jammed disordered systems, we develop a mean-field theory based on the consideration of the contact network as a random graph where the force transmission becomes a constraint satisfaction problem, with which the constraints enforce force and torque balances on each particle. We thus use cavity method to compute the force distribution for random packings of hard particles of any shape, with or without friction and find a new signature of jamming in the small force behavior whose exponent has attracted recent active interest. Furthermore, we relate the force distribution to a lower bound of the average coordination number of jammed packings of frictional spheres. The theoretical framework describes different types of systems, such as non-spherical objects in arbitrary dimensions, providing a common mean-field scenario to investigate force transmission, contact networks and coordination numbers of jammed disordered packings. Another application of the cavity method is immunization strategies. We study the problem of finding the most influential set of nodes in interaction networks to immunize against epidemics. By means of cavity method approach, we propose a new immunization strategy to identify immunization targets efficiently with respect to the susceptable-infected-recovered epidemic model. We implement our method on computer-generated random graphs and real networks and find that our new immunization strategy can significantly reduce the size of epidemic.
DNA Adducts of 10-decarbamoyl Mitomycin C Activate p53-dependent and p53-independent Cell Death
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Mitomycin C (MC), a natural antibiotic and DNA cross-linking agent, has cytotoxic activity and is known to activate the tumor suppressor p53 protein. 10-decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DMC), a derivative of MC, has increased cytotoxicity compared to MC. Both MC and DMC induce cellular cytotoxicity in cells with wild-type p53, while only DMC shows significant cell death activity in the absence of wild-type p53. We investigated the difference in MC and DMC cytotoxicity by comparing DNA adduct composition and the cellular regulation of molecular targets in human cancer cell lines with or without wild-type p53. Compared to MC, DMC produced substantially more mitosene-1-β mono and 1-β cross-link adducts in DNA and resulted in abnormal nuclear morphology in human cancer cells with or without p53. Significantly, greater poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) activity was observed after DMC treatment in both the presence and absence of wild-type p53. Both MC and DMC induced double strand breaks as indicated by gamma-H2AX foci formation irrespective of the p53 status, suggesting that double strand breaks cannot account for DMC's increased cytotoxicity. In cell lines expressing wild-type p53, both MC and DMC signaled for p53 stability and apoptosis induction resulting in cleavage of procaspase-3 and -8. Despite the DMC induced cellular cytotoxicity observed in cell lines lacking wild-type p53, cleavage of procaspase-3 or -8 was not observed in these cells. However, we observed an increase in caspase activity. Caspase-2 activation has been suggested as a pathway for p53-independent cell death in the absence of Chk1. Interestingly, Chk1 was depleted following DMC, but not MC treatment in cells with or without wild-type p53. This Chk1 depletion was achieved through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway since chemical inhibition of the proteasome protected against Chk1 depletion. Additionally, gene silencing of Chk1 by siRNA increased the cytotoxicity of MC but not of DMC. DMC treatment also caused a decrease in the level of total ubiquitinated proteins without increasing proteasome activity. This suggests that DMC- mediated DNA adducts facilitate signal transduction to a pathway targeting proteins for proteolysis. In conclusion, we have found that DMC generates significantly more mitosene-1-β stereoisomeric DNA adducts than MC and causes rapid down-regulation of multiple cellular targets. These studies suggest increased mitosene-1-β stereoisomeric DNA adducts more effectively signal for a mode of cell death which does not require a functional p53 protein.
The Philosophical Side of Contemporary Art Forms
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The purpose of this project is to show that contemporary art forms, specifically popular music, film and comics/graphic novels, are capable of, and do in many cases work as philosophical pieces. I believe that an analysis of these mediums will reveal instances in which the works of art explicate established philosophical theories, expand upon them, and in some cases invent new theories. Each new medium of art gets examined by philosophy in its turn and its merits as a unique art form are debated. From these arguments it is possible to extrapolate the ways in which these works can become philosophical as well as artistic. In philosophically examining the merits of a medium its unique and distinctive qualities are examined. Once these qualities are known it is possible to examine how they can be used to convey philosophical ideas and theories.
INSTITUTIONALIZING COLONIAL IDENTITY: A CASE STUDY ON THE INDIAN PARTITION
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In 1947, the British colony of India was declared independent and emerged as two separate states, Pakistan and India. To examine this event, I ask what material cause(s) made possible the institutional separation between these two new states. To approach this question, I will review the process of political identity formation from the upheaval of 1857 to the 1947 partition. In so doing, I argue that the system of categorizing those who were under British colonial rule manufactured a particular set of political identities on the Indian subcontinent.
The Value of Diversity: Culture, Cohesion, and Competitiveness in the Making of EU-Europe
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This dissertation examines a particular way of governing (through) "culture" as a means to reflect on the making of a "non-national" state form (EU-Europe) and its implications for social inequalities. The term EU-Europe highlights complex and often conflictual relations between European Union (EU), national, and regional governmental levels, and the study focuses on relations between the EU and the city of Berlin. The dissertation critically examines the development of a policy common sense that emphasizes the potential value of cultural diversity for economic competitiveness. Such value, it is assumed by policy-makers, can be realized by combining support to the creative and cultural industries with an approach to immigrant integration that respects individual cultural diversity, ensures equality of opportunity, and fosters intercultural dialogue. Because such interculturalism goes on the EU level hand in hand with a new narrative of EU-Europeanness, the study also "moves outwards" onto relations of EU accession established with Turkey where this has been articulated particularly clearly. The study argues that interculturalist policy constitutes an attempt to overcome challenges to legitimacy and cohesion on EU and city levels by establishing "non-national" modes of belonging and entitlement that work with the neoliberal agenda that has dominantly informed EU-European state-making of the last decades. In selectively embracing cultural diversity, such policy is to turn "culture" from a problem into a resource in the making of "cosmopolitan" places conducive to capital. In Berlin, this has fed into processes of gentrification that serve the generation of rent and effectively void the "right to place" of populations marked through class and culture. In the politics of Turkey's EU accession, the claim that EU-Europeanness is defined through an embrace of diversity has in turn obscured and enabled EU support of the development of a Turkish "competition state." The dissertation furthers our understanding of contemporary "non-national" forms of statehood and of the ways in which these (re)produce inequalities between people and places. It is based on extensive analysis of policy and political documents, interviews with key policy-makers, attendance of policy events, and experience of local politics in Berlin gained during a stay of 12 months.
Population genomic inference of ecology, conservation, evolution, and demographic history of Atlantic seahorses and pipefishes (Syngnathidae)
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In the Atlantic Ocean powerful directional ocean currents can play a significant role in the formation and persistence of marine species. Syngnathidae fishes have a sparse fossil record, high morphological plasticity, and many of these species are difficult to observe in the wild, therefore they frequently lack life history information and the status of regional lineages and species designations are often obscure. In this dissertation I explore the ecology, evolution, and conservation of primarily Atlantic seahorses (Hippocampus) and pipefish (Syngnathus) in four core chapters, using differing genetic datasets ranging from mitochondrial DNA to genome-wide RAD sequences. Most Synganthids have the potential to disperse passively by rafting on floating vegetation, and are direct developers, which is thought to limit their active mobility, yet many species have widespread distributions. The majority of genetic research on Syngnathids fishes has focused on Indo-Pacific species, however the Atlantic Ocean is home to dozens of species of pipefishes from nine genera and roughly 1/5th of the world's seahorses species. In Chapter 1, I use six loci to infer the species tree for all Atlantic seahorses and infer the demographic history and evolution of the "Hippocampus erectus complex." The results of this study support the establishment of an ancestral population of the H. erectus complex in the Americas, followed by the Amazon River outflow splitting it into Caribbean/North American H. erectus and South American H. patagonicus at a time of increased sedimentation and outflow. Following this split, colonization occurred across the Atlantic via the Gulf Stream currents with subsequent trans-Atlantic isolation. Based on the results of Chapter 1, the species H. erectus exhibited a panmictic genetic structure from Latin America to temperate New York waters. However, inhabitants of the temperate region are considered by some ecologists to be tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Contrary to the findings of Chapter 1, in Chapter 2, I use thousands of RADseq loci and show strong support that temperate inhabitants are genetically diverged from southern populations and are composed of an isolated and persistent ancestral gene pool. The aim of Chapter 3 is to investigate how major current forces as well as climatic and geographic processes have shaped the evolutionary and demographic history of western Atlantic seahorses (Hippocampus) and pipefishes (Syngnathus). This Chapter takes a comparative approach across five codistributed species (two seahorses and three pipefishes). Genomic patterns of subpopulation divergence and post-divergence gene flow may be shared amongst fish species with similar life history traits, however ecological differences (i.e., macroclimatic tolerance and rafting propensity) may impact the rates of gene exchange and/or isolation times between subpopulations. The result of this study show how directional ocean currents and the life history trait of rafting propensity impacts population divergence and connectivity, and predicts gene flow directionality and magnitude in four out of five of the focal taxa. Lastly in Chapter 4, I use a molecular forensics approach to track the U.S. dried seahorse trade. Due to global exploitation, the genus Hippocampus are the only fish to have all species listed under the Convention of International trade of endangered species (CITES). Millions of individuals are traded each year for the use in traditional Chinese medicine as well as for souvenirs and crafts. Using "DNA barcoding," while mentoring high school and undergraduate students, we identified and compared specimens collected from two primary U.S. dried seahorse end-markets: 1) traditional Chinese medicine and, 2) Internet and coastal souvenir retailers. The results of this study found a significant contrast in both the species composition and size of individuals being sold between each market.
Straight Record and The Paper Trail: From Depression Reporters to Foreign Correspondents
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Straight Record and the Paper Trail: From Depression Reporters to Foreign Correspondents engages with Martha Gellhorn's The Face of War (1959), Virginia Cowles' Looking for Trouble (1941) and Josephine Herbst's The Starched Blue Sky of Spain and Other Memoirs (1991) as documentaries of struggle. Documentary as a mode of writing and image making reveals dissonance, contradictions and varied perspectives which undermine the official historical record. The three writers, I argue, by republishing their Spanish Civil War (SCW) journalism in book form intended to set their record straight. This was motivated by their commitment to the 1930s struggle and the need to recover much that had been relegated to the margins as human interest stories (HIS), or woman's angle. This patronizing and denigrating label which was applied to their SCW articles dismissed the documentary value of, what I call, their human experience record (HER), as an affectation of uninformed and class biased women writers. Their documentary texts, much like those of Nancy Cunard, Muriel Rukeyser, Gerda Taro, Gamel Woolsey and Virginia Woolf, were not composed under auspices of dominant party lines as they eschewed formal membership in political as well as international organizations. In these, they recognized the very same patriarchal constraints and limitations which they sought to expose using the `masters' tools' they acquired by belonging, or at least being able to pass for "daughters of educated men" yet remained fully aware that being citizens with passports they were in position to help, but by no means to become the face of the cause(Woolf). The main criticism of The Face of War, Looking for Trouble and The Starched Blue Sky of Spain and Other Memoirs has been that Gellhorn, Cowles and Herbst did not tell the whole truth, that dates and names of key players are missing, and that they had no definite answers about the politics and propaganda in Spain. But these were not the objectives these women set for themselves when they went to Spain and later when they decided to republish their SCW journalism. What Gellhorn, Cowles and Herbst omitted from journalism and their subsequent accounts in book form -- moments of doubt, consternation, idleness -- remains in their archival repositories, the recovery project of which this dissertation aims to initiate.