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Blessed Disruption: Culture and Urban Space in a European Church Planting Network
Year of Dissertation:
New Protestant churches are being founded in cities around the world. They are the product of a conscious effort on the part of evangelicals to found, or ``plant,'' new churches in urban areas. Behind this effort are a whole host of actors, including denominations, churches, seminaries, and parachurch organizations, who come together in church planting networks to establish theologically conservative churches that will speak to young urban professional audiences. The hope is that these efforts will scale up and turn into a movement bringing about religious revival among culturally influential groups. Among the focal areas for these efforts are European cities. The presence and vitality of newly planted churches in the European metropolis counters the trend of secularization observed in these places since the middle of the previous century. How do church planters go about and succeed in their quest to bring doctrine to hipsters and yuppies in the European metropolis? This dissertation studies the actors, sites and cultural processes behind a European church planting network to answer this question. The focus is on the anatomy of the network enabling church planting, the engagements with urban space and public culture by church planters, and their understanding of pastoral work. The dissertation engages both supply-side and neosecularization theories in the sociology of religion to make sense of the practices, successes and challenges of church planters in contemporary society. While the supply-side theory goes some way in explaining the form and dynamics of church planting efforts, understanding how the church planters engage with cities requires drawing on other bodies of work, such as David Martin's revision of secularization theory. With Martin I argue that culture and the lived experience of urban space matter in the context of religious change, not just market dynamics in the religious economy. The project is based on multisited research employing focused ethnographic and interview methods. The main focus of the field research was on church plants in four German cities: Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt, and Cologne. In order to gain additional comparative insight, additional interviews and observations were conducted for shorter durations of time in Amsterdam, Paris, and Prague. In addition to field research, the dissertation draws on publications by church planting insiders, media reports, and digital resources. In addition to this research on what has been called contemporary evangelicalism's "cutting edge" and "default mode" of evangelism, the dissertation also asks how and why Europe came to be seen as a mission field. It argues that the conception of Europe as a mission field dates to the interwar period, when mission societies began framing the European continent in these terms. Analysis of these framing processes shows that early instances of framing Europe as a mission field portrayed Europe as occupying an interstitial space between Christendom and heathendom. This history is a reminder not to exaggerate the novelty of contemporary trends, and it also helps to differentiate what is really distinctive about the contemporary mode of evangelistic engagement.
Ecology of Terrorism: Cross-National Comparison of Terrorist Attacks
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The term terrorism is used to describe a large range of behaviors conducted by a wide variety of groups. Terrorist groups differ in ideology, size, financial support, group longevity, and the number of alliances with other terrorist groups. Relatedly, terrorist groups conduct different number of attacks with varying intents to cause fatalities using diverse forms of violence. This study uses ecological theory to contextualize terrorist violence as a product of terrorist group traits in relation to the environmental context. It is hypothesized that terrorist violence is associated with group traits in relation to the varying political, social, and religious contexts of the countries in which groups operate. Using longitudinal multilevel modeling this study analyzes how terrorist group traits, country characteristics, and exposure to counterterrorism tactics, influence terrorist violence (e.g. number of attacks, fatalities, targets, mode of attack, location of attack) over time. This study uses counterterrorism and group-level data from the Big Allied and Dangerous (BAAD1, 2) datasets, attack data from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), country data from multiple public datasets, and counterterrorism and terrorist group data originally collected from open-sources. The results show that each form of violence has a unique set of predictor variables and the results of moderation hypotheses show that group ideologies are associated with different trajectories over time, that group traits condition the effect of counterterrorism, and country characteristics moderation how different terrorist groups conduct violence. This work is among the first to evaluate moderation hypotheses and is one of few studies on terrorism to use advanced statistical methods to evaluate these relationship over time and cross-nationally. The study contributes to the literature on terrorism with relevant policy implications, and contributing to the development of ecological theory and its application to political and religiously motivated violence.
Worthy of the Light: Feminine Heroism in Die Zauberflöte
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Barbara Russano Hanning
"Worthy of the Light: Feminine Heroism in Die Zauberflöte" posits that the opera represents the apotheosis of a heroism depicted by Mozart in the female protagonists of his mature works (Konstanze and Blondchen in Die Entführung, the Countess and Susanna in Figaro, Donna Anna in Don Giovanni), with the possible exception of Così fan tutte (and arguably, in Fiordiligi, even there). This heroism encompasses moral and physical courage within the context of Christian theology, Masonic ideals, and Enlightenment philosophy (exemplified by the English philosophers and the American Revolution, rather than the French enlightenment of Voltaire and Rousseau). My premise challenges the prevailing view that Zauberflöte is misogynistic in its depiction of women. Mozart sought in Die Zauberflöte to portray a proactive, feminine heroism comprising emotional intuition, intelligence, integrity, and physical pluck. The heroine Pamina braves death, yet triumphs in life rather than in martyrdom. In her, Mozart depicts a woman who rescues herself and the man she loves while remaining honest and true to her principles (unlike some of his previous female characters, who employ deception to achieve noble ends). Konstanze is Pamina's closest operatic predecessor and a proxy for Mozart's bride Constanze Weber, whom he married following Entführung's premiere in 1782. Constanze served as his business manager in his final years, making heroic efforts to `rescue' him from financial difficulties (efforts judged by numerous critics to have been on the right track, had they not been cut short by Mozart's untimely death). The deepening of the Mozarts' love in the decade between Entführung and Zauberflöte is manifest in Pamina, whose music resembles Konstanze's and could have been sung by the real Constanze. The Queen of the Night, Pamina's mother, has been perceived as a witch for two centuries, but evidence suggests that Mozart and his librettist, Schikaneder, intended to portray her quite favorably and changed their approach for political reasons - creating a jarring shift between Acts I and II. Yet Mozart, through vocal writing for the Queen that is also strikingly similar to Konstanze's, uses musical `code' to portray her as worthy of our sympathy - and perhaps even a feminine hero.
Phonemic Awareness Instruction: Effects of Letter Manipulation and Articulation Training on Learning to Read and Spell
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This study investigated the effect of two types of phonemic awareness instruction on learning to read and spell words. English speaking preschoolers were taught to segment words into phonemes using either letters or letters combined with articulation pictures. Participants possessed letter name knowledge but were nonreaders prior to training. Triplets were formed based on similar scores on the segmentation, word reading and vocabulary pretests and members were randomly assigned to three conditions: letter manipulation only (LO), letter manipulation plus articulation (LPA), and no treatment control conditions. LO children were taught letter-sound correspondences and use of letters to spell phonemes in words. LPA children received LO training and in addition the use of articulatory pictures to spell phonemes. Control children remained in their classrooms. Posttests were administered one and seven days after training ended. The three groups were compared in their ability to segment words into phonemes, to learn to read a set of words over trials, to decode nonwords, to invent word spellings and to repeat nonwords. Binomial logistic regressions and ANCOVAs were computed to assess the effects of training. Results demonstrated that trained children outperformed controls in phoneme segmentation, spelling, word learning, nonword decoding and nonword repetition. LPA children outperformed LO children in spelling on the one-day posttest but not on the seven-day posttest. LPA children outperformed LO children in phoneme segmentation and word learning at both tests points and in nonword decoding on the one-day posttest. Trained children demonstrated equivalent performance on the one-day nonword repetition posttest The results help to clarify the phonemic processes that underlie and support reading words from memory, as portrayed in Ehri's (1995) theory of sight word learning. The favored explanation for the effect of articulatory training on word learning is that it enhanced the identities of phonemes within phonological representations and this allowed phonemes to become more securely attached to letters as connections were formed during word learning. Superior performance of treatment groups over controls in repeating nonwords suggests that learning to represent phonemes with letters improves phonological short-term memory.
The Influence of Pseudo-relatives on Attachment Preferences in Spanish
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Marcel den Dikken
This paper presents the results from an off-line experiment on the extent to which the availability of pseudo-relatives modulates attachment preferences in Spanish. Participants were presented with sentences in which different syntactic and semantic factors had been manipulated to allow for either both a pseudo-relative (PR) and a relative-clause (RC) reading or a RC reading only. All the experimental items included two potential antecedents with which the constituents of interest could be associated. The experimental items can be divided into four groups: group 1 consists of stimuli allowing for a double reading in direct object position, and groups 2, 3 and 4 consist of stimuli containing RCs in prepositional complement position, preverbal subject position, and postverbal subject position, respectively. A stronger preference for the "higher" antecedent was expected in the first group of experimental items. The results indicate that the availability of pseudo-relatives seems to influence attachment preferences; however, the results ensuing from the statistical comparison of groups 3 and 4 need further investigation.
The Violations Will Not Be Televised: Television News Coverage of Human Rights in the US & UK
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This study briefly reviews the relevent communication studies and international relations literatures to build the foundation for the content analyses by defining terms and highlighting the most salient points for comparison between the media and human rights systems in the US and UK. It then moveson to three different types of content analysis on American television news broadcasts and two different types on British television news broadcasts, all with the goal of determining how those media systems cover human rights and how that coverage differs across media systems. First, a content analysis of all of the stories containing the phrase human rights from one US network news broadcast from 1990-2009 is conducted to see the amount of human rights coverage in the US in the post-Cold War period and examines both the issues and the countries that are covered in the context of human rights in the US. Then one month of transcripts/shooting scripts for evening news broadcasts in the US and UK in 1990 is examined to see what, if any, kinds of stories might be covering human rights issues without explicitly using the phrase human rights. Finally, a visual analysis of one week of evening news broadcasts for the US and UK from 1990-2009 is conducted, comparing which stories are covered in each country, as well as how they are covered. As it turns out, there is very little human rights coverage on television news, period. There is more human rights coverage in the UK than in the US, but not as much more as might have been expected, given the states' differing approaches to human rights and differing television media systems. One key difference between the two countries' coverage is the depth of coverage of human rights stories; once the UK covers a human rights issue, it tends to do it more thoroughly, from more angles, and with more explanation, so the audience is more likely to learn about human rights when they are covered on the BBC than when they are covered on NBC or ABC.
Complicity and Criticism: "Neo-Geo" Art of the 1980's
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This dissertation examines the deconstructive underpinnings of the so-called Neo-Geo group of the 1980's and explores links between Neo-Geo and the Pictures or Appropriation artists of the late 1970's. Neo-Geo emerged in the early 1980's as one aspect of New York's nascent East Village arts scene. The movement--also dubbed Simulationism, Neo-Pop, Neo-Minimalism or Post-Abstraction--primarily encompassed eight independent-minded artists, including painters Ashley Bickerton (b. 1959), Peter Halley (b. 1953), Sherrie Levine (b. 1947), Allan McCollum (b. 1944), Philip Taaffe (b. 1953) and Meyer Vaisman (b.1960). These artists were attributed the Neo-Geo moniker in 1986 based on their use of geometric forms and their appropriation of art historical motifs and styles from well-established artists. Sculptors Jeff Koons (b. 1955) and Haim Steinbach (b. 1944) were initially labeled as Neo-Geo, then also as Commodity Artists beginning in 1986. The varied epithets for this group represent critics' attempts to understand and classify the broad range of mediums and appropriative methodologies employed by these artists. It has all along been a questionable act to characterize this group under one cohesive name, as if they constituted a singular movement. Many of these artists had been a part of the East Village scene since 1980 or earlier, but they were only discussed and labeled by the art press at a time when their work gained significant popularity among prominent collectors and dealers. While the Neo-Geo artists differ substantially, their work nonetheless explored some common themes and pursued some strategies in common. Neo-Geo artists created paintings and sculptures that functioned, in a sense, in a textual manner. This diverse group collectively shared an interest in examining the terms, limits and structures of art history and various aspects of the society-at-large, including commodity capitalism and digital culture, in a deconstructive manner. Rooted within an amalgamation of art historical sources, Neo-Geo built upon the strategies of Pop, Minimalist, Conceptualist and Pictures artists in the creation of a diverse body of work. As I demonstrate, Neo-Geo used pastiche and strategies of parodying certain art historical paradigms to create new dialogues within contemporary art.
THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF BASIC SENSORY PROCESSING AND INTEGRATION IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
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This thesis presents three studies that together explore the neurophysiological basis for the sensory processing and integration abnormalities that have been observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the disorder was first described over half a century ago. In designing these studies we seek to fill a hole that currently exists in the research community‟s knowledge of the neurodevelopment of basic multisensory integration -- both in children with autism and as well as in those with typical development. The first study applied event related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures of multisensory integration to a large group of healthy participants ranging in age from 7 to 29 years, with the goal of detailing the developmental trajectory of basic audiovisual integration in the brain. Our behavioral results revealed a gradual fine-tuning of multisensory facilitation of reaction time which reached mature levels by about 14 years of age. A similarly protracted period of maturation was seen in the brain processes thought to underlie to multisensory integration. Using the results of this cross-sectional study as a guide, the second study employed a between groups design to assess differences in the neural activity and behavioral facilitation associated with integrating basic audiovisual stimuli in groups of children and adolescents with ASD and typical development (aged 7-16 years). Deficits in basic audiovisual integration were seen at the earliest stages of cortical sensory processing in the ASD groups. In the concluding study we assessed whether neurophysiological measures of sensory processing and integration predict autistic symptom severity and parent-reported visual/auditory sensitivities. The data revealed that a combination of neural indices of auditory and visual processing and integration were predictive of severity of autistic symptoms in a group of children and adolescents with ASD. A particularly robust relationship was observed between severity of autism and the integrity of basic auditory processing and audiovisual integration. In contrast, our physiological indices did not predict visual/auditory sensitivities as assessed by parent responses on a questionnaire.
Woman's Work: Ruth Maleczech as Mabou Mines Performer, Director & Manager
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Abstract WOMAN'S WORK: RUTH MALECZECH AS MABOU MINES PERFORMER, DIRECTOR & MANAGER by Jessica Brater Adviser: Professor Marvin Carlson This project identifies key elements of Ruth Maleczech's body of work, tracing a central and enduring point of view of the American avant-garde theatre company Mabou Mines. As co-artistic director, Maleczech created an original environment enabling her to exert control over her own artistic choices. This freedom is particularly rare for a performer, as is the ease with which Maleczech moves among the various responsibilities of performing, directing, and producing. Relying upon Mabou Mines's emphasis on the development of new work and its human resources and institutional structure, Maleczech uses the company as the context for creating a cohesive body of work with a highly individualized artistic point of view. By considering Maleczech's production choices thematically, and by juxtaposing original interviews with published reviews, production archives and critical analysis, I establish patterns in Maleczech's body of work highlighting the inter-relationship between process and product. Chapter One focuses on Maleczech's performances in Beckett's Happy Days and Franz Kroetz's Through the Leaves, revealing her interest in making ordinary women important onstage. Chapter Two examines how Maleczech uses an historical angle in the productions Dead End Kids, Lucia's Chapters of Coming Forth by Day and Bélen to experiment with representations of women onstage. Chapter Three juxtaposes two productions about fathers, Hajj and Mabou Mines's Lear, demonstrating Maleczech's interest in destabilizing traditional notions of the father figure, and by extension, all family roles. Chapter Four investigates Lee Breuer's Shaggy Dog, Red Beads, and Summa Dramatica alongside Beckett's Imagination Dead Imagine, productions on which Maleczech collaborated with her daughter, Clove Galilee, to examine Maleczech's challenges to notions of familial and artistic hierarchy. The conclusion briefly traces Imagining Imaginary Invalid and includes views of her longterm collaborators as they ponder the significance of her work. I argue that Maleczech creates a distinct point of view in her work with Mabou Mines and in her position as a feminist, downtown New York theatre artist. By focusing her choice of material on unexpected representations of women and by consistently taking artistic and production risks she has promoted and pursued radical and revealing artistic choices.
Components of Body Ego Transformation linked to Female Homoeroticism: An Exploratory and Qualitative Study
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This is a qualitative, exploratory study of body ego transformation. Eight components of transformation were arrived at from this researcher's own experience, observations of other females, and identified in psychoanalytic literature. These were then explored in the projective and narrative responses from lesbian, bisexual and queer identified women about their female homoerotic experiences. Nine women ages 25-35 were recruited and interviewed in two sessions using phenomenological methodology. An original projective and semi-structured interview was created to elicit participants' unencumbered responses about their experiences of homoeroticism, so as to minimize the effect of external expectations that might color them. Participants were asked to respond to prompts about erotic parts of their body in a projective format. Subsequently, they were asked to describe their homoerotic thoughts, fantasies, and behaviors across their lifespan. Two women's interviews were chosen based on the presence of substantive, multilayered responses and narrative construction, evidence of a transformation of body ego, and their ability to shed light on the quality of other participant's transformations. These two participants' responses were analyzed in-depth. Speculated components of transformation were identified using psychoanalytic understandings of metaphor and basic principles of Rorschach Inkblot Methodology (RIM). All eight components were cited varying in frequency, intensity, and significance. Components were employed in common and unique ways. The variations in how component were used seemed to reflect participants' life experiences and personality style. Although this was a small sample, the findings indicated that eroticism is a regressive experience from which transformation of body ego can occur.