Alumni Dissertations and Theses

 
 

Alumni Dissertations and Theses

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  • Public Market to La Marqueta: Shaping Spaces and Subjects of Food Distribution in New York City, 1930-2012

    Author:
    Anne Babette Audant
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Earth & Environmental Sciences
    Advisor:
    Setha Low
    Abstract:

    From Public Market to La Marqueta: Shaping Spaces and Subjects of Food Distribution in New York City, 1930 to 2012 by Anne Babette Audant Advisor: Setha M. Low Public markets are definitive parts of the urban landscape. Policies shaping municipal food provisioning, including public markets, produce and reproduce differentiated subjects and unevenly developed spaces. Social science has not paid sustained attention to public food markets; this research contributes to a fragmented and multi-perspective body of work that demonstrates the many ways in which markets intersect with urban processes. I look at the geographic distribution of food in and through New York City's public markets from 1930 to the present by mapping intersections of politics, citizens, consumers, social class, gender, ethnicity, race, government, capital, and the retailing landscape. Tracing these processes over more than a century, this study demonstrates that food distribution is a dynamic and highly contested aspect of urban life, underscoring a deep if sometimes under-articulated recognition of the work done by the flow of food through city streets. Focused on New York City's public markets, particularly the enclosed retail markets built in the late 1930s and early 1940s to contain New York City's pushcarts and street peddlers, this study explores how the immigrant working classes became the objects of municipal food policy. Food habits became a means through which to Americanize - and civilize - the masses. Along with their bodies, their food landscapes became the targets of state intervention. Working class neighborhoods were - and are - vulnerable to state interventions that too often further alienate already disempowered populations. Food policy has the potential to advance social justice. In New York City, we are witnessing the emergence of a new municipal food policy, which, if implemented, will be the first comprehensive policy to be proposed since the Progressive Era. Aimed at reducing inequities and improving public health, and integrated with broad goals of environmental and economic sustainability, the proposals on the table point in promising directions.

  • INTERPERSONAL RHYTHMS DISRUPTED BY A HISTORY OF TRAUMA: AN IN-DEPTH CASE STUDY OF ANALYTICAL MUSIC THERAPY

    Author:
    Tanja Auf der Heyde
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Psychology
    Advisor:
    Steven Tuber
    Abstract:

    Abstract INTERPERSONAL RHYTHMS DISRUPTED BY A HISTORY OF TRAUMA: AN IN-DEPTH CASE STUDY OF ANALYTICAL MUSIC THERAPY by Tanja Maud Christine Auf der Heyde Advisor: Steven Tuber, Ph.D. This dissertation project is a phenomenological study of interpersonal rhythms within the music therapy treatment of a client with a history of cumulative trauma. An attempt was made to explore whether and how rhythmic interactions within musical improvisations facilitate the repair of ruptures in such rhythms. Towards this aim, the rhythmic interactions between the two participants were analyzed to find evidence for bi-directional rhythmic co-regulation and loose mid-range coordination. Furthermore, this study tracked shifts in the client's mental state by applying a moment-to-moment analysis of the music with four Improvisation Assessment Profiles (IAPs). It was found that musical improvisation allows for ample opportunities for bi-directional co-regulation and loose mid-range coordination. Most of the mental state ratings were within the "optimal arousal state," suggesting that music does, in fact, facilitate regulation on both intrapsychic and interpersonal levels. However, this study also uncovered the importance of spontaneous and planned disruptions in rhythmic interaction, which find their musical expression in syncopations, polyrhythms, and a-rhythmic sections. These experiences are deeply embedded in the body. Thus, they provide the opportunity not only for reconnecting with one's own rhythms, and for reconstructing a disrupted expectation system within an improvisation, but also for finding agency in the playful thwarting of expectations, and for exploring the continuum of separation and connectedness in a musical relationship. In this sense, music acts as a transitional phenomenon, creating an intermediate space between inner and outer worlds. In this "third" area of experiencing, both participants align with patterns that go beyond the sum of their contributions; when this state of flow is reached, one can feel that one is played by the music as much as one is playing it. The results of this study indicate that a close rhythmic analysis of improvised interactions can help music therapists to assess the client's level of trauma as well as to tailor interventions to move them out of the repetitious rhythms of hyper- and hypoarousal. For verbal psychotherapists and psychoanalysts, the implication is that rhythmically aware, embodied listening can open up new dimensions of transference and countertransference phenomena. To this end, clinicians should pay special attention to rhythmic shifts in affect, speech, and bodily gestures.

  • The Rat Bastard Protective Association: Bruce Conner and His San Francisco Cohort, 1958-1968

    Author:
    Anastasia Aukeman
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Art History
    Advisor:
    Anna Chave
    Abstract:

    This dissertation is a theoretical and historical account of the art-making activities of the Rat Bastard Protective Association, a small, close-knit community living and working in mid-century San Francisco. Assemblage was a common denominator within the group, which included Wallace Berman, Joan Brown, Bruce Conner, Jay DeFeo, Wally Hedrick, and Manuel Neri, along with other, less constant members. The first book-length study devoted to the Rat Bastards, this project explores the political, social, and aesthetic concerns in their assemblages. It also reexamines the term assemblage, to take into account process and intent along with medium and technique. Allowing for this performative dimension impels a re-evaluation of these artists' works, its impact on subsequent developments, and its place among process-based practices in art since the 1950s.

  • Ethnicity in Hagiography: The Case of Darerca/Moninna/Modwenna/Modwenne in the British Isles, Seventh to Thirteenth Centuries

    Author:
    Diane Auslander
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Thomas Head
    Abstract:

    Abstract ETHNICITY IN HAGIOGRAPHY: THE CASE OF DARERCA/MONINNA/MODWENNA/MONINNA IN THE BRITISH ISLES, SEVENTH TO THIRTEENTH CENTURIES By Diane Peters Auslander Adviser: Professor Thomas Head This is a contextual study of four related hagiographies written from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries in the British Isles. It is probable that there was a seventh-century original that is no longer extant much of which was retained in the tenth-century life. The saint herself is Irish and the earliest name we have for her is Darerca, but her name changes as the lives are rewritten. She is called Moninna in the eleventh-century life, Modwenna in the twelfth-century vita, and Modwenne in the thirteenth-century vie. Darerca is an Irish saint who lives and travels within Ireland and her Irishness is retained throughout these vitae. In the Life of St. Moninna, however, the saint's persona has been conflated with the legends of other saints of the British Isles, many of whom are difficult to identify with any certainty. Moninna's hagiographer includes her Irish journeys, but has her traveling to Scotland and England. In England, she is said to have founded Burton Abbey in the midlands, indicating that her name had become confused with that of a St. Modwenna whose relics were buried at Burton Abbey. In the early twelfth century, the abbot of Burton Abbey rewrote the Life of St. Moninna, retaining its Irish elements, but making it more relevant to an English audience. In c.1235, the text was reworked again at Burton in Anglo-Norman verse. The period during which these four lives were written was one of almost constant movement of peoples and mingling of ethnicities in the British Isles.. For some newcomers, such as the Vikings, the processes of resistance were succeeded by varying degrees of assimilation. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, however, there developed a virulent institutionalized ethnic hostility toward the Irish. Therefore this study examines these lives through the lens of ethnicity, ethnogenesis, assimilation, and bias.

  • EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF DAUBERT'S CROSS-EXAMINATION SAFEGUARD ON ATTORNEYS' AND JURORS' JUDGMENTS ABOUT SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Author:
    Jacqueline Austin
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Psychology
    Advisor:
    Margaret Kovera
    Abstract:

    The Supreme Court's decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc clarified that federal trial judges were to serve as evidentiary gatekeepers for scientific evidence, evaluating scientific reliability when determining admissibility. When judges fail at gatekeeping and admit unreliable expert testimony, the Court expresses faith in the ability of cross-examination to reveal the reliability of testimony for jurors. For cross-examination to function as the Court intends, attorneys must recognize scientific flaws and craft cross-examination questions that expose scientific threats. Moreover, these scientifically informed cross-examinations must act as a form of scientific training for jurors. I conducted two studies to empirically examine the Court's assumptions regarding cross-examination. In Study One, 95 attorneys read a trial summary that contained expert testimony regarding an intelligence test. I varied the validity (presence v. absence of experimenter bias threat) and reliability (moderate v. high reliability indices on test-retest, inter-observer, and internal consistency scores) of the intelligence test. Attorneys provided lower ratings of scientific quality when the test was unreliable but did not craft cross-examination questions designed to expose the low reliability indices of the scientific test. Attorneys did not provide lower ratings of scientific quality when the intelligence test was invalid; however, a proportion of attorneys did craft cross-examination questions to expose the validity threat. In Study Two, I again varied the reliability and validity of the intelligence test and whether the cross-examination educated jurors about the study's flaws (scientifically informed vs. naïve). Either a judge or an attorney conducted the scientifically informed cross-examinations. Scientifically informed cross-examinations did not assist jurors with evaluating scientific reliability or validity. These studies suggest that cross-examinations may not function as a safeguard against flawed scientific evidence. Although some attorneys may be able to meet the Court's expectations, cross-examination may be an ineffective method of providing methodological training for jurors.

  • Narratives of Interiority: Black Lives in the U.S. Capital, 1919 - 1942

    Author:
    Paula Austin
    Year of Dissertation:
    2015
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Herman Bennett
    Abstract:

    Abstract NARRATIVES OF INTERIORITY: BLACK LIVES IN THE U.S. CAPITAL, 1919 - 1942 by PAULA C. AUSTIN Advisor: Professor Herman L. Bennett This dissertation constructs an urban, social and intellectual history of poor and working class African Americans in the interwar period in Washington, D.C. Although the advent of social history shifted scholarly emphasis onto the "ninety-nine percent," many scholars have framed black history as the story of either the educated, uplifted and accomplished elite, or of a culturally depressed monolithic urban mass in need of the alleviation of structural obstacles to advancement. A history of the poor and working class as individuals with both ideas and subjectivity has often been difficult simply because there are limited archival sources. "Narratives of Interiority" uses data collected and other materials created by social researchers in the Progressive era's burgeoning social science fields to examine the everyday lives, movements, and articulated thoughts of a disaggregated African American poor and working class. While sociological and social welfare materials have been criticized for contributing to the racialization of crime and the pathologization of black urban life, they also offer historians a rich archive from which to cull the complexities of daily existence and inner life that transcend the instrumental renderings of black pathology and the narrow configurations of the black urban migration experience. This archive accentuates inner life, life of the mind, and the quotidian and brings into relief varied interpretations and understandings of political economy, educational possibilities, citizenship, family, appropriate (legal, respectable) comportment, and conceptions of self as articulated by black poor and working class individuals themselves. Furthermore, an historical examination of social science research materials instead of social scientists' and reform workers' interpretations of that material complicates an analysis of early sociology, problematizing ethnographic methodology, but also interrogating the possibilities for voice and visibility that sociological and anthropological research projects offered, and offers, people with little access to politics and visiblility writ large.

  • Perspective-taking Based Insights into Theory of Mind: An ERP Study

    Author:
    Elizabeth Axel
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    Psychology
    Advisor:
    Ray Johnson, Jr.
    Abstract:

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to make inferences about another person's mental state. One account of ToM, Simulation Theory, posits that this ability is accomplished by using one's own mental processes as a model for the other person's mind. This is accomplished in a serial manner by first accessing the processes related to the self before switching to taking the perspective of the other. Hemodynamic imaging studies of ToM have provided evidence that self and perspective-taking processes depend on different brain circuits but cannot identify the temporal aspects of the processes. To determine if these processes occur in the posited serial manner, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants made evaluations either from their own perspective or from the perspective of another person (i.e., Task: Evaluation, Perspective-taking). The relatedness of the person (target) of the evaluations (i.e., Relatedness: Self, Close Other, CO, Non-Close Other, NCO) was also varied to determine if the brain areas posited to be involved in the processing of the self would be activated differentially. Thus, a three-stage, serial process was hypothesized, suggesting that the perspective-taking process requires an initial anchoring in the self, a decoupling of different perspectives (i.e., self and other) and then a late stage in which the other's perspective is maintained in order to make a decision. The results showed that RTs were similar across conditions. Recordings from 83 scalp sites revealed differential patterns of activation as a function of both Task (Evaluation, Perspective-taking) and Relatedness (Self, CO, NCO). Consistent with the "serial hypothesis," the ERP results provided evidence of three temporally distinct stages during the decision process when the various evaluation and perspective-taking tasks were compared in the electrodes corresponding to TPJ. When Evaluation and Perspective-taking judgments were compared, a first stage (i.e., 200 - 350 ms) was found in which there were no ERP differences as a function of Task, in accord with the idea that perspective-taking processes require an initial grounding in the self. In contrast, during this first stage, effects were seen as a function of Relatedness in which judgments about Self were more negative-going than judgments of CO or NCO. A second stage (400 - 600 ms) became apparent in which the lack of ERP differences between Evaluation and Perspective-taking tasks continued but now the Relatedness effects disappeared. That is, during this middle stage, the ERP activity from all conditions was similar. As a result of its timing, being interposed between the early and late stages, this middle stage may reflect the hypothesized decoupling process (i.e., shift from self to other) that was posited to occur between the self and perspective-taking stages In the third stage (700 - 850 ms) the ERP activity elicited during perspective-taking differed from that in evaluation tasks due to the addition of a negative slow potential over the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ). Relatedness effects returned in this later stage, although in this time period judgments about the self elicited more positive-going ERPs than judgments of CO or NCO. In addition, the results revealed that self-referential evaluations were marked by greater ERP activity over occipital and mid-frontal scalp very early after stimulus onset (i.e., 70 - 360 ms). Increased activity at these locations has previously been shown to reflect the level of attention devoted to stimuli indicating that self-referential evaluation engendered the highest levels of overall attention. Finally, although not addressed in models of ToM processes, the results revealed that the differences in use of control processes varied as a function of both task and the object of the decision. Specifically, compared to evaluation tasks, perspective-taking tasks elicited a larger pre-response negativity (PRN), which has been linked to the use of goal-oriented, strategic monitoring processes. Moreover, within each of these tasks, there were graded effects on the relatedness dimension in which judgments about the self required the least strategic monitoring, followed by the close other, with non-close other requiring the most. In addition, the amplitude of the medial frontal negativity (MFN), which follows the response and has been shown to reflect the residual conflict following a response, also varied as a function of both task and the object of the decision. That is, perspective taking judgments elicited larger MFNs (i.e., greater residual conflict) than evaluations and judgments about the self elicited the smallest MFN with larger MFNs for close other judgments and the largest MFNs for non-close other judgments. In sum, the ERP results from scalp sites overlying the TPJ appear to confirm the role of that brain area in ToM. More important, it was shown that the activity there is not constant during the ToM judgments but rather follows three distinct stages. Hence this supports previous hypotheses stating that the perspective-taking process involves an initial anchoring in Self before a decoupling process begins, followed by the shift to the other's perspective and suggests that the TPJ plays a role in all three of these stages. Further, we extended previous hemodynamic results by showing that the executive processes related to strategic and tactical monitoring play an important role in ToM. Taken together, the results from the present study demonstrate the value of using the ERP as a tool for studying the nature and timing of the processes used when one engages in Theory of Mind operations.

  • COMPARATIVE ADS AND THEIR AFFECTIVE CONSEQUENCES: THE EFFECT OF SCHADENFREUDE ON PURCHASE LIKELIHOOD AND ATTITUDES

    Author:
    Ozge Aybat
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Business
    Advisor:
    Thomas Kramer
    Abstract:

    Comparative ads, in which a brand compares itself to a competitor brand, are frequently used in print and television media. When marketers compare their brands to others, they often show comical situations in which misfortunes befall those consumers who are using competitors' brands instead of theirs. Extant research has examined the impact of comparative ads without taking consumers' affective reactions into account, even though persuasive messages have been shown to elicit affective reactions that may mediate consumers' attitudes and behaviors. In the current research, I examine "schadenfreude," defined as the pleasure at the misfortunes of others, as an incidental emotional response elicited by comparative ad appeals. Across a series of studies, I show that more competitive individuals are likely to experience greater levels of incidental schadenfreude when they are exposed to comparative ads. More importantly, I examine the downstream implications of invoking schadenfreude and show that more competitive individuals are more likely to buy the advertised product when a higher-status brand uses comparative ads, since these ads make them experience greater levels of incidental schadenfreude.

  • INTANGIBLE HERITAGE'S UNCERTAIN POLITICAL OUTCOMES: NATIONALISM AND THE REMAKING OF MARGINALIZED CULTURAL PRACTICES IN TURKEY

    Author:
    Bahar Aykan
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Sociology
    Advisor:
    Patricia Clough
    Abstract:

    The scope of cultural heritage management has been extended from tangible to intangible products in the few last decades. Debates surrounding the field of heritage raise fundamental questions about its inherent political character, calling particular attention to the ways in which heritage programs are dominated by nationalistic concerns. This study examines UNESCO-initiated intangible heritage making in Turkey. I focus on the complex relationship between heritage and nationalism, and the various levels of heritage making of marginalized cultural practices by national governments. This study shows that global heritage protection mechanisms have diverse and uncertain outcomes even in the same country. Yet when examined together, these outcomes reveal how heritage mechanisms nonetheless continue to be dominated by nationalist government interests. Drawing on interviews, ethnographic research, and content analysis of the UNESCO documents, I offer three case studies of recent heritage management programs in Turkey launched by the Justice and Development Party (JDP) government to safeguard marginalized cultural practices. These are the Mevlevi Sema ceremony, Nevruz festival, and Alevi-Bektaºi Semah ritual. Radical differences in the Turkish government's methods of handling the heritagization processes of these three practices uncover a recent transformation in the official nationalist policy and discourse in Turkey, from secularist Turkish nationalism (of Kemalism) to Islamist Turkish nationalism (of the JDP). It is these shifting nationalist trends that make Turkey's intangible heritage practices not only an aspect of the politics of recognition (in the case of the Mevlevis), but also of nonrecognition (in the case of the Kurds), and misrecognition (in the case of the Alevi-Bektaºis) regarding the extent these marginalized ethnic and religious identities comply with the current government's nationalist agenda.

  • As Film is, so goes the Novel: The Image, Film Ekphrasis, and History in the Contemporary Novel

    Author:
    Ece Aykol
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    English
    Advisor:
    Gerhard Joseph
    Abstract:

    My dissertation studies the use of the verbal representation of analog film in the novels of contemporary writers Paul Auster, Adam Thorpe, and Orhan Pamuk. I look at these authors' use of the moving image in relation to the existing poetics of the ekphrasis of still images and art objects. Film, understood as the "temporalization of space," informs the way in which I interpret film ekphrasis different from the ekphrasis of still objects that "spatialize temporality." In trying to emulate this temporal art form with words, these authors create a poetics of film ekphrasis, which constitutes a representation of the past in the present continuous. Their allusion to the analog image enables them to find creative means of constructing history and memory. My study also addresses the "digital" image and explains how its construction of time differs from the analog image. In order to grasp the tension between the analog and digital, and to reveal how visual artists are responding to emerging technologies, I turn to the films of Jean-Luc Godard, Michel Gondry, and Wim Wenders, as well as to JoAnn Verburg's photographs and Sam Taylor Wood's mixed media art. Understanding current practices in the visual arts, I suggest, can produce interpretive strategies for the ekphrasis of digital films.