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Everyday Masochisms: Charlotte Bronte, George Moore, D.H. Lawrence, and Jean Rhys
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This dissertation argues for the magnitude of a critical literary period in the development and exploration of theories about masochism. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth-century, discourses about sexuality become more publicly accessible. Circulating ideas by sexologists Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Havelock Ellis, and psychoanalysts like Sigmund Freud, encourage a public conversation about sex, desire, and identity. Both novelists and their readers find themselves in a groundbreaking space that fosters a rethinking of sexual selfhood. Instead of relegating masochism to institutions, brothels, and case studies, Charlotte Brontë, George Moore, D.H. Lawrence, and Jean Rhys provide representations of masochism that are far more ordinary, surfacing in various everyday experiences. I analyze the existence of different portrayals of masochistic relationships: courtships and partnerships in Villette (1860), unrequited lesbian desire and its reincarnation as religious zeal in A Drama in Muslin (1886), surprisingly dynamic marital partnerships in The Rainbow (1915), and an adulterous love triangle in Quartet (1928). I begin with a reading of the Biblical story of Samson and Delilah in conjunction with Leopold von Sacher-Masoch's foundational Venus in Furs in order to develop and contextualize a transhistorical masochistic lineage. Finally, this project looks ahead to Ian McEwan's TThe Comfort of Strangers (1981), which notably returns to the enactment of more literal sadistic and masochistic fantasies, furthering emphasizing the unique literary approaches to masochism covered by the four main authors in this project.
"IT WAS EASY": HOW AMERICAN CULTURE TURNED THE VETERAN INTO THE MAN, 1944-1959
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When millions of GIs returned in 1945, Americans tried to establish a brand new era, infused with optimism and prosperity, in which the war was decidedly over. In historic numbers, Americans married, had children, and purchased goods and homes, but they did so while mostly concealing their fear that the war was not over, at least not in the psyches of men. As such, the protection of society from men was the central concern of postwar American culture. Many scholars and historians have studied "shellshock," which illustrates this dangerous potential turned inward, but the apocalyptic possibilities of an entire generation of men erupting in violence are rarely commented upon, though they are quietly ever-present in period. Furthermore, this terror of veterans deepened into a generalized fear and suspicion of men's "inherent" violence and hyper-sexuality, which defined masculinity thereafter. This dissertation engages with film, media, literature, earlier treatments of the period, and gender and sexuality studies to advance a new perspective on the artistic and cultural output of and about the "Greatest Generation," arguing that anxiety about men's violent and erotic potential emerged differently in different forms, genres, and media, but nonetheless permeated American culture in these years.
Embedded Forms and the Progressive Wonders of The Winter's Tale
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Written in an age of theatrical experimentation, The Winter’s Tale stands out even amid the lively playhouse practices of its day for its allusions to multiple genres, ranging from the overt theatrical genres of tragedy and comedy, to contemporaneous subgenres such as pastoral tragicomedy and masque, to non–theatrical entertainments such as bearbaiting, broadside ballads, and statue–viewing. While prior critics have treated the play’s numerous generic allusions in isolation, this dissertation reads The Winter’s Tale as a progression of embedded forms meant to condition a sequence of affective and increasingly interactive audience responses, thus preparing Shakespeare’s audience for the redemptive, participatory wonders of the final act. My three chapters trace Shakespeare’s evocation of tragic tropes and rigid pageantry in the first half of the play; his nods to raucous, contemporaneous forms such as bearbaiting and pastoral tragicomedy in Acts III and IV; and the fading, nostalgia–inducing miracle plays and “old tales” he uses to frame the wonders of Act V. I argue that, through this progression, Shakespeare rejects the tyrannical, controlling visions of Leontes in favor of the participatory marvels of Act V, dismissing rigid, patriarchal forms such as Leontes’ show trial while ultimately elevating generative, interactive, feminine forms such as Marian miracle plays and old wives’ tales. Reading The Winter’s Tale as a late career ars poetica designed to test and reinvigorate the theatrical faith of Shakespeare’s audience, my dissertation explores the sprawling yet rigorous poetic logic behind the play’s generic mixing.
Amiri Baraka and Edward Dorn: The Collected Letters
Claudia Moreno Pisano
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Amiri Baraka and Edward Dorn: The Collected Letters presents the correspondence of twentieth-century American poets Edward Dorn and Amiri Baraka (formerly LeRoi Jones) between the years 1959 and 1965. Having seen several poems of Dorn's in various small literary magazines, Baraka began writing to him with praises and a request for poems for his own magazine, Yugen. During this time, Dorn lived in Santa Fe, New Mexico and then Pocatello, Idaho, while Jones lived in New York City. The major basis of their relationship, and these letters, is undoubtedly an artistic one, the early 1960s finding both poets just beginning to publish and becoming active, public figures. With the sense of art as not only a valid but a necessary means of grappling with and understanding both the beautiful and the horrific in the world fueling each poet, the letters become both reflection and place of creation, the ground upon which to experiment. Baraka's independent magazines Yugen and The Floating Bear and independent publishing house Totem Press were key in providing space for numerous artists from several different strands in the late 1950s and into the 1960s. He published two of Dorn's poetry collections through Totem/Corinth presses, and saw several of Dorn's poems into print in both Yugen and The Floating Bear. These two little magazines became focal points for mid-century artistic ferment, publishing new, highly outspoken and radical poets from all over the U.S. This publishing space helped break down the geographical and human isolation in which so many of these poets found themselves, which is part of the story of Dorn and Jones's friendship itself. If we think of a text as defining political boundaries and providing historical continuity, these letters constitute the history of these poets and their times better than many other forms of documented history. As both historical and autobiographical lens into two key writers at the very pulse of the turbulent cultural and political happenings of mid-century America, these letters reveal an extraordinary snapshot of American identity and history.
The Grammar of Choice: Charles Dickens's Existential Idea of Religion
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This dissertation challenges the received opinion that Charles Dickens's religious thinking is merely sentimental and philanthropic. Instead, I argue that there is in his works a very consistent "existential" sense of religion, especially in his mature novels. To be religious for him does not lie in the adherence to dogma or the study of theological arguments, but in the crucial choices people make every day. In order to illustrate this "existential" sense of religion, I analyze, in the first chapter, relevant works by Kierkegaard, Carlyle, George Eliot, and Dostoevsky, in order to establish the context in which Dickens's religious views can be discussed. In the second chapter I examine him in the context of twentieth-century writers such as Sartre and Camus to underscore Dickens's existential modernity. The central argument of this chapter is that the very possibility for characters to make a choice is rendered difficult by the widespread loss of faith. Two novels deal with this issue in particular: David Copperfield and A Tale of Two Cities.The third chapter begins by examining the choice of good versus evil, which is shown to be a very complex issue for Dickens, even in his early works. Then I proceed to discuss the implications of this choice and conclude that knowingly to choose evil over good constitutes "sin" for Dickens, as he demonstrates in Dombey and Son.The last chapter focuses on Dickens's last published novel Our Mutual Friend and discusses the possibility of free choice, a religious issue complicated by the implications of Darwinian evolution.
Beyond Agency: Women Writing Romance as Political Intervention in the English Revolution
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This project examines four sub-aristocratic seventeenth-century women who wrote romance and historical narrative as political interventions during the social upheaval of the English Revolution: Judith Man defends Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, to Parliament in her translation, An Epitome of the history of faire Argenis and Polyarchus (1640), of a French abridgement of John Barclay's Argenis; Suzanne Du Verger advocates for Catholics in her two translations of Jean-Pierre Camus' French romances, Admirable Events (1639) and Diotrephe (1641), as well as in Du Verger's Humble Reflections (1657), a vitriolic response to Margaret Cavendish's The World's Olio (1655); Anne Bradstreet rejects English "romance" for New English history in The Tenth Muse (1650); and Anna Weamys reexamines women's political roles in her royalist yet moderate A Continuation of Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia (1651). In order to reconstruct the political contributions of each author to their varied political causes, I examine the conversations between their texts and paratexts, how their books speak to and for their authors' social positions, their revisions of the uses of romance, and their political subtexts. Each woman belonged to a class that had unusual access to the aristocracy because of their service to noble families, although they themselves had no real claim to titles or were gentry. They adapt the genre of romance, which had been so often used as a discourse of aristocratic display, for their own political purposes, which range from defending Catholicism to revising the Puritan Plymouth Bay Colony's approaches to internal dissent. I argue that these authors sought agency to redress political grievances rather than to achieve authorship. When seen together, these texts constitute a new involvement for sub-aristocratic women in imaginative literature, one that continues after the Restoration.
Exquisite Corpses: Fantasies of Necrophilia in Early Modern English Drama
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My dissertation examines representations of necrophilia in Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. From the 1580s, when London's theatres began to flourish, until their closure by Parliament in 1642, necrophilia was deployed as a dramatic device in a remarkable number of plays. Exquisite Corpses analyzes the relationship between the English Reformation's abolition of the doctrine of Purgatory and obsequies for the dead, and the frequent, often eroticized representations of dead bodies in the commercial theatre. Despite Protestant iconoclasm, "the cult of the cadaver," as Eamon Duffy refers to it, was not readily relinquished and remained indelible in the cultural imagination. My project expands the definition of necrophilia beyond sexual intercourse with corpses, and builds on current uses of the word by early modern scholars to include all eroticism that occurs within the vicinity of death and dead bodies in English Renaissance drama, all eroticism that cannot be understood without considering the role death plays in its formulation. During this same period, human dissections were publically performed more frequently and anatomical discoveries were published for lay as well as professional audiences. Outbreaks of the plague and public executions likewise kept the dead in intimate proximity to the living. I argue that the confluence of religious, anatomical, and punitive discourses contributed significantly to the eroticized depictions of corpses in early modern drama. Central to this study is my observation that the sex/death nexus is about the flesh. As theologians and polemicists argued, lust is born in, expressed through, and ultimately corrupts the flesh; similarly, many discourses concerned with what "dead" meant posited that death was defined by the decay of the flesh. In other words, flesh conjoins the erotic and the thanatotic. Thus, to understand the eroticization of corpses, and the ways in which corpses influenced the shaping of erotic subjectivities, is to better understand how early moderns conceived of eroticism, death, and mortal flesh. To demonstrate my argument, I use a cultural historicist approach underpinned by psychoanalytic and gender theories and analyze plays that illustrate particularly well the conjunctions between sex and death and their relationship to subject formation. My intervention opens promising new models for understanding the reciprocal relationship between death and erotic subjectivity. As the first book-length study on necrophilia in early modern drama, it foregrounds several dramas that interrogate key cultural concerns about intimacies between the living and the dead.
Loosening the Critical Corset: New Approaches to the Short Fiction of Kate Chopin and Ruth Stuart
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My dissertation uses the works and lives of two popular late-nineteenth-century writers, Ruth McEnery Stuart and Kate Chopin, as a heuristic to solve the literary mystery of how "fiction by women" became "women's fiction." While feminist scholars resuscitated Chopin, Stuart remains ignored. The realism and irony of Chopin's novel The Awakening resonate with modern readers, but the sentimental aspects of Stuart's work and Chopin's short fiction remain problematic. The aesthetic movements of realism and naturalism influenced literary taste to the extent that sentimentalism is anathema to contemporary critics. I participate in recent scholarship that explores how sentimentalism has been used by countless writers in all eras as a literary device. I posit that Chopin and Stuart use sentimental devices to remain commercially successful in a difficult publishing market and to introduce transgressive elements in their fiction that broaden realism and naturalism's often narrow and denigrating portrayals of mothers.
"How Come Boys Get to Keep Their Noses?": Women and Jewish American Identity in Contemporary Graphic Memoirs
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This dissertation is devoted to a cohesive, theoretical exploration of Jewish American women and comics in the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries. Specifically, it argues that the autobiographical works of many Jewish American women cartoonists dynamically and productively encapsulate a new metaphor of Jewish identity as dis-affiliation through the complex and unique language of comics. Contemporary cartoonists who find themselves uncomfortable with conventional notions of what it means to claim and depict Jewishness are reconceptualizing Jewish difference by rebelling against dominant narratives and modes of Jewish representation. At the root of their graphic articulations, the women under examination in this study - including Aline Kominsky Crumb, Vanessa Davis, Miss Lasko-Gross, Lauren Weinstein, Sarah Glidden, and Miriam Libicki - reveal self-identification and self-representation as potentially transgressive acts that both bind people to and disconnect them from real and imagined communities, even as they allow for individualism in the forms of creative agency and choice.
"How Shall We Write History?": The Modernist Historiography Of Joseph Conrad, Ford Madox Ford And Rebecca West
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This study explores how several British modernists applied the experimental methods of literary modernism to the writing of history and historical novels. In examining the works of Conrad, Ford and West, I pose several questions regarding the relationship of modernism and historiography: why in histories of the historical novel do modernist works get overlooked? What would a modernist work of history look like? Can contemporary historians searching for new forms find models in these writers? In my dissertation I distinguish these three writers from the "High Moderns" in terms of the former's responses to narrative history. Eliot and Pound eschewed narrative as a means of accessing history; Joyce and Yeats employed myth as an organizational principle for their literary shaping of historical events. In contrast, Conrad, Ford and West maintained narrative as the primary vehicle for relating events of the past. Nevertheless, despite their investment in narrative, they wrote histories with the same sense of skepticism and experimentation they brought to their other fiction. I begin with Conrad's Nostromo, which I see as the founding text of modernist historiography. This historical novel self-consciously plays with the ambiguity of the term "history," which can mean both historical referent (events, forces of the past etc.) and historical narrative itself ("a history"). Ford Madox Ford, in his early historical novels, somewhat naively believed that one could capture an historical era with an homologous literary style, but his masterpiece The Good Soldier took him beyond these practices into a more skeptical modernism that dramatized the distance between any textual narrative and the events it describes. While some critics see the novel's narrative circularity as reflecting circular notions of history, I instead read it as expressing Ford's belief in the circularity of historiography itself, the constant need for the retelling of events and the continual return of historians to key moments in time. I then turn to Rebecca West's first novel The Return of the Soldier, which depicts a soldier who has returned from the front with amnesia, to interrogate the role of memory and forgetting in the writing of history. This theme recurs in Parade's End, Ford's wartime tetralogy, which I read as an (unacknowledged) rewriting of West's novel. I conclude with West's Black Lamb and Grey Falcon, which I take to be the prime example of a modernist work of history. This travel tour through the Balkans on the eve of the Second World War reaches back to West's early engagements with literary modernism, as her great work stresses both the radical difficulties of writing history--what she terms "history's impossibility"--with an equally powerful, but more urgent necessity to record the Balkan way of life before the advance of the Nazis. West thus injects an ethical imperative into the modernist project, reminding us of the very human need for histories.