Alumni Dissertations and Theses

 
 

Alumni Dissertations and Theses

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  • Partir marron: Un parcours sémantique à travers les trous de la mémoire collective haïtienne

    Author:
    Lucie Paul
    Year of Dissertation:
    2014
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Francesca Sautman
    Abstract:

    The word "marron" represents both a totality, and a specificity. Totalizing, the term refers to the slave who fled from the plantation, against the colonial order, that is, the fugitive slave. Specific, in the Haitian lexicography, it stands for a shifty and cunning individual, particularily a "Woule m debò" . One has to recognize that there is a double meaning associated with the word, and at the same time, the syntagmatic locution "partir marron" reflects the individual’s dependency on phenomenology. The moment of crisis is one of an explosion, through which one can only be free by severing all ties from this lieu, the colonial plantation. While running away, the fugitive slave engages materialistically his own survival. It is through this dual, sometimes pluralistic, register that I intend to decipher the paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations of marronnage, as well as the antithetical inversions encountered across Haitian lexicography and literature. My intention is to locate the continuities and discontinuities of this semantic transformation, while looking through the forgotten or missing links of Haitian collective memory. I aim, through a narrative (re) construction, to understand and clarify the meaning of being a fugitive slave and a maroon and what that implies in a colonial and postcolonial order. My purpose is to extract, from this semantic strength and richness, what is tributary to history, as socio-cultural heritage. But most fundamentally, I aim to revisit and question the toponymic assignation of the term itself. It seems evident, in my opinion, that the "Marron", if he originates from a lieu, carries in him all "lieux de mémoire". In so doing, he echoes the significance more than the signified version of the term.

  • Les femmes dans le marronnage à l'île Bourbon de 1662 à 1848

    Author:
    Marie-Ange Payet
    Year of Dissertation:
    2009
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Edouard Glissant
    Abstract:

    This dissertation examines the presence, participation and role of maroon women in the phenomenon of marronnage, (resistance to slavery) in the island of Bourbon (Réunion Island today) from the beginning of the French colonization in 1662 to the abolition of slavery in 1848. This work investigates how enslaved women played an incentive part in the marronnage and the legacy they left. Once free the Maroons were forced into nomadism, generating a community in perpetual movement in the mountains of Cilaos, Mafate and Salazie. They had to protect themselves from the planters hunting them down. Through the process of reterritorialization the Maroons were able to create a new identity for themselves respecting and remembering their origins and beliefs, inventing their distinct forms of cultural expression such as language, music and dance. However their new territories could not be functional without the presence of women. Some historical and contemporary texts mention the names of the influential maroon women like Héva, Marianne, Raharianne, Simangalove and Sarlave. Part mythical and part real, these women fructified and strengthened the everyday life of maroon villages through agricultural tasks and transmitted the traditions to the next generation leaving a legacy in the underground cultural landscape of today. Looking at the representation of Maroon women in the colonial and contemporary novels of Réunion, the archival documents of the French colony of Réunion, the contemporary toponomy of the mountains, this work attempts to reveal and define the identity of these important women were. This dissertation examines their legacy in the folktales of Mme Desbassyns and Granmèr Kalle and in the practices of holistic medicine by contemporary shaman women in Réunion Island. This dissertation is a testimony and a celebration of their existence.

  • Paris and Havana: A Century of Mutual Influence

    Author:
    Laila Pedro
    Year of Dissertation:
    2014
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Mary Ann Caws
    Abstract:

    Abstract PARIS AND HAVANA: A CENTURY OF MUTUAL INFLUENCE by Laila Pedro Adviser: Mary Ann Caws This dissertation employs an interdisciplinary approach to trace the history of exchange and influence between Cuban, French, and Francophone Caribbean artists in the twentieth century. I argue, first, that there is a unique and largely unexplored tradition of dialogue, collaboration, and mutual admiration between Cuban, French and Francophone artists; second, that a recurring and essential theme in these artworks is the representation of the human body; and third, that this relationship ought not to be understood within the confines of a single genre, but must be read as a series of dialogues that are both ekphrastic (that is, they rely on one art-form to describe another, as in paintings of poems), and multi-lingual. Finally, I contend that these translational relationships must be examined within the greater context of twentieth-century modernisms, particularly Surrealism. I apply critical, theoretical and philosophical frameworks articulated by Édouard Glissant, Antonio Benítez Rojo, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty to four case studies of inter-genre, inter-national, multilingual dialogues unfolding over the course of the century to reveal dynamic figurations of bodies that are at once visual, poetic and performative.

  • INSCRIPTION DU PASSÉ COLONIAL DANS LA LITTÉRATURE URBAINE CONTEMPORAINE

    Author:
    Steve Puig
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Thomas Spear
    Abstract:

    This dissertation argues that urban literature--a genre that has developed after the 2005 riots in France--has helped redefine French identity for a new generation of French citizens living in the outskirts of Paris whose parents were born in the former colonies. This new genre of fiction deals with daily life in the French banlieue, but also tackles themes that are linked to France's colonial past in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Maghreb and the French Caribbean among others. It is precisely the transmission of this colonial past that contributes to a new configuration in French society. Chapter One deals with the history of the French suburbs, dwelling especially on the banlieue as a sociological space, which is often portrayed negatively in the media. Chapter Two shows the importance of Beur literature as a precursor of urban literature. Chapter Three considers the banlieue as an internal colony and argues that the development of postcolonial studies in France was triggered by the situation of descendants of colonial subjects living in the margins of the capital. Chapter Four deals with urban novels written by Franco-Maghrebi women. Asserting that women describe the banlieue in a more intimate way than their male counterparts, this chapter demonstrates the importance of events like October 17th 1961 and the necessity to rewrite French history. The last chapter delves into the question of blackness in urban literature and the place of minorities from Africa and the French Caribbean in contemporary French society.

  • Reading the Restaurant: Social Class, Identity, and the Culture of Consumption in the Nineteenth Century French Novel

    Author:
    Joseph Rienti
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Mary Ann Caws
    Abstract:

    The restaurant, like so many of the institutions of French modern society, developed at a very particular moment in history. In this project, I tell the story of the maturation of the restaurant and study its unique role in the social history of Paris during the nineteenth century. By examining the restaurant as a site of modernity, I illuminate its important role in precipitating class distinctions, locating the emerging consumer culture, highlighting gender differentiation, challenging prevailing views of domesticity, and revealing a debate over public and private space. Through a close reading of the realist novel as a discourse on daily life, I intertwine cultural history and literary theory to look at some of the critical questions about the nineteenth century restaurant. I examine a sampling of novels in which the restaurant is integral to the author's narrative project. I demonstrate how Balzac uses the restaurant in Père Goriot as a signifier of one's social status and how Maupassant uses the restaurant in Bel-Ami to differentiate gender roles. In my analysis of Flaubert's Madame Bovary and L'Éducation Sentimentale and of Henry Céard's Une Belle Journée I write about the restaurant's unique role as both a public and private space in French society by highlighting its ability to simultaneously satisfy many "appetites." I read Balzac's Le Cousin Pons, Dujardin's Les Lauriers sont coupés, and Huysmans' À Vau-l'eau through the lens of an anxious bourgeoisie trying to navigate the emerging restaurant culture of Paris. In my final chapter, I address the social issues that rose to the surface as a result of the emergence of a nineteenth century consumer society focused around the restaurant through an analysis of Baudelaire's poem "Les Yeux des pauvres" and Zola's Le Ventre de Paris.

  • TITRE (A VOIR) : économie et évolution du titre de film français depuis 1968. Questions autour de l'interprétation théorique des titres de film.

    Author:
    Noelle Rouxel-Cubberly
    Year of Dissertation:
    2009
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Royal Brown
    Abstract:

    This dissertation seeks to define the relations between film titles and their cotexts on the one hand and to weigh the importance of the values they shape and convey to the audience at large on the other hand. Also considered as an economical term in French ("titre"), the title represents cultural as well economic values. As suggested by the founders of literary titology, Claude Duchet, Leo Hoek but also Barthes, Genette and Derrida, titles lead (to) the co-text. This position of power, concretely embodied by complex institutional regulations, calls for an array of theoretical perspectives. If this study draws from these eminent theoreticians, it also examines film titles as conscious and unconscious representations as well as exchange values. Mainly borrowing from Appadurai's notion of exchange, Glissant's poetics of relation, and Derrida's reflexion on titles as "counterfeit money", this dissertation intends to explore the economics of French film titling as a sociocultural phenomenon revealed through an ekphrastic and psychoanalytic approach. A comparative study of French film comedies in the 1970's and in the 1990's illustrates the distorted mirror-effect film titles provide in our reading of the world. This study aims at theorizing film titles' own theorizing of our shifting beliefs and values.

  • SA NOU YÉ: FILMMAKING PRACTICES AS FORMULATIONS OF IDENTITY IN HAITI, GUADELOUPE, AND MARTINIQUE FROM 1976 TO 2011

    Author:
    Sophie Saint-Just
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Jerry Carlson
    Abstract:

    This dissertation considers the emergence of filmmaking practices in Haiti and in the French Caribbean (Martinique and Guadeloupe). I interpret the ways in which Haitian and French Caribbean collective and individual identities are reframed by the film medium in a series of films made between 1976 and 2011. I argue that these films do more than provide social commentary: they play an affirmative and contestatory role. Filmmakers renegotiate these identities by calling into question prevailing but limiting dichotomies: Martinique and Guadeloupe as assimilated French and now European Caribbean islands and Haiti as the first Black republic and the poorest country in the Western hemisphere.

    Chapter 1, 2, and 3 concern Euzhan Palcy's landmark film Rue Cases-Nègres. In Chapter 2, I argue that Palcy transformed Joseph Zobel's novel into a bildungsroman , migration, and a plantation narrative shot in the Hollywood Classical style. French critics who reviewed the film were unfamiliar with the cultural legacy of the (French) Caribbean. As a result they failed to understand the scope and meaning of the film (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 retraces the genealogy of filmmaking practices in Haiti, Martinique, and Guadeloupe through the career of Darling Légitimus, a veteran actress who played the female lead in La rue Cases-Nègres. Chapter 5 focuses on several Haitian and French Caribbean historical films where the past is rewritten as a grand narrative or through storytelling techniques that use oral tradition, Caribbean tropes, and theories. Diaspora, displacement, and alienation are the organizing principles of Chapter 6. This chapter examines recent Haitian and French Caribbean films that cast a critical look at the Haitian, Guadeloupean, and Martinican immigration experiences by proposing dystopian viewpoints. The ways in which Haitian and French Caribbean filmmakers have embraced marginality as a form of dissent is the focus of Chapter 7. Finally, Chapter 8 reviews the material conditions of production, exhibition, and reception of francophone Caribbean films.

  • Hugues Rebell, a Zarathustran Disciple, a Zarathustran Writer

    Author:
    Melinda Schlehlein
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Royal Brown
    Abstract:

    Abstract Hugues Rebell, A Zarathustran Disciple, A Zarathustran Writer by Melinda Schlehlein Advisor: Professor Royal S. Brown This dissertation seeks to give Hugues Rebell, born Georges Grassal (1867-1905), the attention he deserves but has not yet received from the Anglophone world as a fin-de-siècle essayist and novelist whose writings are as distinct within the French literature of the period as they are distinctive as some of the first to be inspired by the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. A descendent of aristocrats and grands bourgeois in Nantes, Rebell took up in writing the rebellion that his penname signified, a rebellion against the socio-political systems that his family dreaded and that the Third Republic represented, or, those that originated in the French Revolution: egalitarianism, and its expression in democracy, socialism, and Christianity. I establish early that given Rebell's privileged reception of Nietzsche over his French contemporaries, he was able to form an original understanding and interpretation of Nietzschean thought. In so doing, Rebell, as I contend, does not borrow Nietzsche's ideas wholesale but rather uses them to authenticate his own aesthetic in two main areas: in politics and in fiction, each of which is the focus of Parts I and II, respectively. Part I shows how Rebell's political thinking both develops and deviates from Nietzsche's elitism, and also distinguishes itself from that of his extreme-Right French cohorts. Part II shifts the focus from Rebell's nonfictional political writing to one of his most neglected novels, La Femme qui a connu L'Empereur that I argue should be recognized in a special place within the history of the French novel and as an example of great Nietzschean fiction, as it can be seen to exhibit amazing synchronicity with the theory of perspective considered at the levels of character development, narrative structure, and French History rewritten as a story. In both Parts, I strive to make salient my contention that, like Nietzsche's writings, Rebell's pose irresolvable inconsistencies that render any attempt reduce the author to a one-sided position--whether political or other-- impossible. I connect Part II to Part I primarily by suggesting that there are at least two Rebells: the perspectival novelist whose multi-voiced narrative opposes the fascist political thinker.

  • Gide in the First Person: the "I" of Religion and Same-Sex Sexual Desire

    Author:
    John Sorrentino
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Royal Brown
    Abstract:

    André Gide's works are marked by a continual struggle what he perceived as the incompatible nature between his homosexuality and the religious morality that excluded it. This dissertation examines the ways in which André Gide deals with this struggle, and how through his fiction, he negotiates the lines between a belief in God and his personal sense of sexual otherness, while trying to achieve an authentic voice that mitigated the two. Drawing from a range of theory and criticism from Gide studies and Queer studies, this work analyzes the themes of sexuality and religion in a range of Gide's works from the mid 1890s through 1925, including Les Nourritures terrestres, Paludes, Le Prométhée mal-enchaîné, Les Caves du Vatican, L'Immoraliste, Le Retour de l'Enfant Prodigue, La Porte étroite, La Symphonie pastorale, and Les Faux-monnayeurs. Within the corpus of Gide's work, a timeline is revealed of the fluctuation between Gide's exaltation and his disenchantment as he contemplated - either in the first person or through his characters - issues of God and sex, of pleasure and suffering. Sexuality and religion are inter-reliant factors that work sometimes to negate each other, other times to reinforce each other, revealing a complexity both of the author and his texts. This dissertation explores the relationships between religion and same-sex desire and finds the links that exist between his religious thought and the "I"/"je" of his desire, as Gide, throughout his body of work, negotiates the uncertain landscape of creating a queer "discourse" and finding within it a sense of personal authenticity both with regard to his religious beliefs and his same-sex desire.

  • The Algerian War Era Through a Twenty-First Century Lens: French Films 2005-2007

    Author:
    Nicole Wallenbrock
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    French
    Advisor:
    Jerry Carlson
    Abstract:

    Abstract THE ALGERIAN WAR ERA THROUGH A TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY LENS: FRENCH FILMS 2005-2007 by Nicole Beth Wallenbrock This dissertation addresses French films made between 2005 and 2007 in which the Algerian War serves as a cinematic subject and setting. The Algerian War as a film genre has never been more significant than post-2005; in fact, ten films (either set during the war or that make important reference to the conflict) were made between 2005 and 2007, more than in any previous decade. My project thus examines the reasons for the frequency of the Algerian War in cinema during this time period. The policies of Jacques Chirac and Nicolas Sarkozy, the rise of second and third-generation North-African immigrants, and the revelation through recent literature and media of previously unknown acts of torture that took place during the Algerian War increased interest in the subject. I investigate how these historical phenomena surface directly and indirectly in contemporary cinema, revealing the current place of the Algerian War in the popular imagination. In chapter 1, I generally discuss all Algerian-War films before 2005, presenting the New Wave as a development concurrent with the war in a study of Le petit soldat (made in 1960 released in 1963) and Muriel ou le temps d'un retours (1963). The chapter concludes with an investigation of the reception of the Italian-Algerian production La Battaglia di Algeri (1966) in France. In the following three chapters, I place recent films in thematic pairs: Chapter 2 The PTSD flashback: Caché (2005) and Mon Colonel (2006), Chapter 3 Victim or Perpetrator?: L'ennemi intime (2007) and La trahison (2005), Chapter 4 The Child Immigrant and the Child Witness: Michou d'Auber (2007) and Les Cartouches Gauloises (2007). These films alter, amplify, and adjust the meaning of the war period to correspond to recent historical findings and a changing political climate in the twenty-first century. As a multicultural French population confronts the legacy of colonialism with growing magnitude in the streets, the classrooms, and courts, a study of the concurrent cinema is imperative. These films represent a discourse in which memory and nationalism intersect, critiquing the past and present.