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THE KALOPHONIC SETTINGS OF THE SECOND PSALM IN THE BYZANTINE CHANT TRADITION OF THE FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES
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The kalophonic settings of the second Psalm emerged in music manuscripts of the Byzantine Empire during the early fourteenth century and were long considered the exemplary specimens of their kind, yet no scholarly study has ever examined the reasons behind their significant production, purposeful usage and abrupt vanishing, two centuries later, from the church repertory. In this dissertation, I explore the historical and political circumstances of the Palaiologan period (1261-1453) that determined the creation and usage of these settings as an artistic propagandistic vehicle that glorified the image of the emperor. The politics of imitation of Christ by the imperial figure was supported by the messianic message embedded in the psalmic text. In addition, the prolific compositional production of the greatest composers of the period, often commissioned by the emperors and the church authorities, is testified to by the abundant creation of kalophonic settings for every verse of the psalmic poem. The direct association of this music with the imperial office is such that the vanishing of the latter in 1453 compromised the survival of the former in the performing repertory of the Office of Great Vespers. The musicological part of my study focuses on all three types of musical settings - simple, florid and prologue with kratema -which are illustrated with eighteen examples of music, in complete pieces or in excerpts, chosen from twenty music codices. Where needed, I have cited and provided quotes from performance practice commentaries and contemporary music treatises to enhance my analytical approach. Similarly, I have analyzed compositions of the same psalmic verse(s) by different composers for comparative purposes, and I have identified two hundred fifty-seven concordances of all types of musical settings. I have transcribed all the melodies into Western staff notation and have provided the original Byzantine notation as it appears in the manuscripts with the Psalmic text written in Greek language below the staves. The results of this musicological study finally confirm the variety of the settings and the claims that the musical settings of the second Psalm are indeed the quintessential specimens of the kalophonic style.
Madness, Sexuality, and Gender in Early Twentieth Century Music Theater Works: Four Interpretive Essays
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Diagnoses of madness are inextricably entwined with social and cultural beliefs about gender and sexual behavior. The portrayal of characters in music theater as mad relies on contemporaneous understanding of mental illness, as often resulting from, or expressed in transgression of normative gender roles or heteronormativity, and this may apply either to male or female characters. Such transgressions are explored--with regard to recent reconceptualizations of madness within Disability Studies--in four works: Arnold Schoenberg's monodrama Erwartung (1924); Richard Strauss's opera Salome (1905); Kurt Weill's ballet chanté, Anna-Anna (1933), also known as The Seven Deadly Sins; and Igor Stravinsky's neo-classical opera, The Rake's Progress (1951). Like Lucia di Lammermoor, the nineteenth-century opera with the best-known mad scene, Erwartung features a female lead character overwrought by emotion and driven to extreme behavior. Unlike Lucia, however, Die Frau--the main character in Erwartung--was created at a time when Freudian theory was spreading widely and permeating the consciousness of both its creators and its audiences, thus lending Erwartung wider interpretive possibilities. As the title character of Richard Strauss's 1905 opera, Salome is often regarded as the opera's source of pathological desire and mental disease; however, Herod also displays traits of madness, and these traits can be interpreted through the lens of gender studies as being essentially feminine. Anna-Anna, the protagonist of Weill's ballet chanté embodies, in this reading, the Freudian concepts of schizophrenia, homosexuality, and narcissism, which Freud regarded as being inextricably entwined with one another. Baba the Turk is an essential character in The Rake's Progress because she suggests and embodies a spectral homosexual presence in the opera. She "queers" Tom Rakewell, thus highlighting his madness as the result not only of a bad bet with Nick Shadow, but also of his inability to live up to the expectations of manhood in post-World War II America.
Weird Scenes Inside the Gold Mine: An Analytical Study of the Music of the Doors
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The Los Angeles-based band the Doors remains iconic in rock music history and is synonymous with 1960s counterculture. Through their cultivation of a dark self-image and idiom, the band expressed, reflected, and artistically commented on the turmoil and social upheaval of late-1960s America. The Doors influenced the country's socio-cultural nexus for many reasons: their serious and often sober artistic intent, singular and pioneering styles of music, poetic ambition, theatrical inclination, countercultural affiliation, and psychedelic drug associations. This is the first dissertation to focus specifically on the Doors' music, utilizing musicological and analytical tools to explore its modus operandi and its enduring appeal. This study attempts to establish a paradigm with which to read and parse the band's style and musical meaning. Rather than taking a chronological or encyclopedic approach, I examine their output via a taxonomy I have developed based on interlinked musical and thematic qualities: songs derived from existing musical forms, those delineated by subject matter, and epic song formats. Thus, I concentrate on a representative spectrum of songs-- including many lesser-known compositions that have not been addressed to date--which aptly displays the group's ethos and musical imagination. Moreover, this study is unique because I frequently consult live recordings that were captured during the Doors' extensive tours but released years later. These recordings and my analyses of them speak to the exceptional importance of the bands' live concerts, where theatrical and improvisational forays were plumbed, and which had a tremendous impact on bands in the Doors' wake. These inclusions, taken together with the landmark hits, fill out the Doors' portrait and serve to further underscore their musical innovations as well as the boundaries they transgressed. Finally, in contradistinction to the sociological and cultural studies approaches that have prevailed, which address Morrison and the Doors primarily as signifiers of the late 1960s per se, my considerations of cultural factors and context are tethered to the Doors' actual musical, lyric, and performative production, and as such they examine the complex ways these intersected with their audience and with the larger public sphere.
Mental Discipline and Musical Meaning
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Musical meaning, or what a musical experience communicates to a listener, is predicated on a shared habitus of listening between the musical creator (i.e., composer, performer, or improviser) and the listener. The meaning a listener takes away from a musical experience is partly dependent on the vessel transmitting it (i.e., who is performing, the quality of performance, or the visual aspects of performance), and a musical creator's actions are the result of his or her training, past experiences, enculturation, attentional focus, and bodily control in the heightened mental state in which creativity occurs. Even in traditions that consider the musician to be a conduit for inspiration from an otherworldly source, the musician must still undergo training in order to allow for a free, uninhibited flow of music. Music practitioners' evaluative statements, in which they describe the ways in which a musical experience was meaningful for them, often implicitly include an expectation of this mental discipline on the part of the musical creator. A practitioner-listener uses the appearance of both the music and the musician, the expectation of a musical logic governing the musical sounds, and the emotions or feelings of transport that he or she experiences to infer a musical creator's mental state and mental discipline, relying on his or her own musical experiences as a guideline. Most broadly, this dissertation is an ethnomusicological study of the cultural and social contexts, cognitive dimensions, and aesthetic judgments found in 18th-century German flute pedagogical treatises and published writings from shakuhachi players. More specifically, it is an axiological examination of the role habitus plays in the forming of aesthetic judgments among practitioners whose writings include an implicit expectation of mental discipline in a "good" musical experience, drawing upon the work of Jean-Jacques Nattiez and Kendall Walton, in particular. This dissertation offers a description of the kinds of mental states in which creativity occurs, includes a theory of musicking as the bringing forth of one's inner self or core consciousness, and demonstrates ways in which practitioners suggest that another musician's inner self (i.e., mental discipline and mental state) can be discerned in a musical experience. Flute treatises by Johann Joachim Quantz (1697-1773) and Johann Georg Tromlitz (1725-1805) raise broad issues of aesthetics in terms of the ways in which serious music of the 18th century aspired to capture ideals of nobility, the ways in which musical judgment was used a means of assessing a listener's social status, the ways in which mental control in musical execution and composition were defined, and the ways in which a musician's mental discipline can produce a transcendent musical experience. The issues raised in these treatises resonate with concerns equally touched upon by contemporary music philosophers (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Gottfried Körner, Johann Mattheson, and Johann Georg Sulzer) and also perpetuate aesthetic concerns from the Renaissance. The writings of shakuhachi players Hisamatsu Fuyo; (1791-1871), Watazumi (1910-92), Andreas Fuyu Gutzwiller (b. 1940), Christopher Yohmei Blasdel (b. 1951), John Singer (b. 1956), Ralph Samuelson, and Gunnar Jinmei Linder present a range of concerns that define the modern shakuhachi habitus. Their statements which allude to discernible aspects of mental discipline in their own playing and in the playing of others are driven by four major concerns: the primacy of the performance as the meaningful act of musicking, a player's membership in social groups (ryuha), the shakuhachi's traditional role as a tool for spiritual meditation, and practitioners' multiple senses of history. In this dissertation, the issue of mental discipline is examined in shakuhachi playing with regard to a player's inner mental experience, the execution of gestures that result in musical sound, and the experience of achieving enlightenment (suizen).
The Impact of French Opera in Nineteenth-Century New York: The New Orleans French Opera Company, 1827–1845
JENNIFER JONES WILSON
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This dissertation examines the influence of French opera through the touring New Orleans French Opera Company’s summer seasons in early nineteenth-century New York City. In that burgeoning operatic environment, I provide an account of the company’s interaction with both resident and traveling opera companies, beginning with the visit of Manuel García’s company in 1825–26. The French Opera Company, which performed in 1827–33, 1843, and 1845, brought new approaches in performance practice and current opera repertoire to the New World. While Italian opera companies were sought after, I demonstrate that the works coming from Paris—either in French or in English translation—were both critically admired and more successful with audiences than the Italian works. In addition, I include details about the New York French community that demonstrate the influence of the Old World. Over a span of two decades, foreign-language opera in New York City began as a cultural experiment and ended in a flood of touring companies. The performances and reception of the New Orleans French Opera Company were integral in laying the foundation for future companies.
The Woodwind Quintets of Darius Milhaud With an Emphasis on Quintette pour Instruments a vent, op.443
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Ora Frishberg Saloman
In comparison to other common chamber music genres, such as the string quartet or brass quintet, the woodwind quintet possesses a rather small repertory. Darius Milhaud's (1892-1974) La Cheminée du roi René, op. 206 is a staple in that repertory and his quintets Two Sketches, op. 227 b, and Divertissement, op. 299b are performed occasionally. His final quintet, Quintette pour Instruments à vent, op. 443, is relatively unknown and very seldom performed. This dissertation investigates three of Darius Milhaud's four woodwind quintets. La Cheminée du roi René and Two Sketches are discussed, and there is a focused examination of his final quintet, Quintette pour Instruments à vent. This quintet is also Milhaud's last opus, completed in the year before his death and dedicated to his wife in honor of the couple's fiftieth anniversary, factors which contribute to the significance of the work. This study includes a biographical sketch of Milhaud and a discussion of his writings about music as well as other writers' remarks about the composer's music. It contains a brief history of woodwind quintets from the genre's inception to the twentieth century. A previous study's discussion of the form of La Cheminée du roi René is expanded with harmonic insights, and there are thorough formal analyses of Two Sketches and Quintette pour Instruments à vent. Writings about Milhaud's music are reconsidered after the works are discussed.
The Art Songs of Tom Cipullo
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This study explores the role Tom Cipullo plays in the development of American Art Song 1992-2008. Born in 1956, composer Tom Cipullo has written well over 100 songs. His music is complex and challenging yet firmly rooted in the 20th-century continuation of Romanticism. Cipullo's choice of poetry is almost always contemporary American, embracing a full range of themes. His songs have won top awards in their field, and are well received by audiences and performers. Following a biography, a discussion of the development of the "neo-Romantic" movement in the field of Art Song, and Cipullo's role in this progression is presented. "A Guide to the Songs" provides an annotated catalog and performance guide to 67 published songs written between 1992 and 2007. The performance guide explains non-standard indications in the scores and outlines Cipullo's interpretive preferences. It provides essential information for singers, pianists, coaches, and teachers wishing to access this repertoire. Appendices provide an alphabetic list of songs, a list of authors set by Cipullo, a complete works list 1983-2009, a discography, and a bibliography. This study is informed through interviews with Cipullo. The author prepared, coached, and performed many of the songs; attended coachings and master classes with Cipullo; and attended live performances of Cipullo's songs. The remaining songs are analyzed through both professional and unpublished recordings. Several prominent performers of Cipullo's vocal music provided live interviews. Secondary sources aid in identifying Cipullo's role in the development of American Art Song 1992-2008. This study serves as the basis for further research into Cipullo's life and works, and for successful performances of his songs.
Multiple Agency in Mozart's Chamber Music
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This study undertakes an examination of elements of social intercourse encoded in Mozart's chamber music. Since the 1770s, many authors have described chamber music—especially string quartets—as a form of stylized conversation. Although this metaphor still figures prominently in discussions of the Classical style, analyses of individual chamber works rarely capture the interplay among the parts. This dissertation attempts to bridge that divide through the notion of multiple agency, which regards each instrumental part as an independent persona engaged in a seemingly spontaneous interaction with the other parts. Like actors portraying dramatic characters, the players enacting these musical characters may experience the illusion of self-determination, as if they are choosing their own statements, moment to moment, through a process of group improvisation. Multiple agency offers a theoretical model of how players may conceive of their own musical utterances and interactions as the discourse unfolds in time as they play. Harmonic, formal, and metrical events may be construed as resulting from the interaction among the characters, and conflicts or ambiguities arise when they outwit, surprise, or compete with one another. The historical study in Part I of this dissertation provides inspiration for the analytical method developed in Part II. Beginning with accounts of Mozart's own domestic music-making (Chapter 1), the historical survey proceeds to examine eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century sources that describe chamber music as a metaphorical conversation or social interaction among the instruments (Chapter 2). Chapter 3 contrasts the modern practice of performing chamber music in public concerts with the practices of Mozart's time, when this music was most commonly played at home among friends, who usually sight-read from individual parts. This setting presumably lent the music-making a spontaneous, of-the-moment quality that shares affinities to open-ended improvisation. The analytical portion introduces the concept of multiple agency in detail (Chapter 4). Departing from the traditional, omniscient vantage point for music analysis, which views the score as a unitary whole, multiple agency offers a multivalent perspective on the individual characters' roles in determining musical events. Chapters 5 and 6 examine the implications of multiple agency for the analysis of form and meter, respectively, through close readings of a number of musical excerpts from Mozart's chamber music.
The New York Chamber Music Society, 1915-1937: A Contribution to Wind Chamber Music and a Reflection of Concert Life in New York City in the Early 20th Century
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The New York Chamber Music Society, founded in 1915, was one of New York City's prominent cultural institutions in the early twentieth century. A vital piece of the classical music landscape, the Society played an important role in the city's development as one of the major artistic capitals of the world. The contributions that the organization made to wind chamber music repertoire and its mission to further the performance of chamber music in New York City are remarkable. The legacy of the New York Chamber Music Society is the works that were premiered or played for the first time in New York, especially those of leading New York City and American composers. The concerts of the New York Chamber Music Society show founder Carolyn Beebe's visionary, innovative and forward-looking approach to programming as demonstrated by the wide variety of music performed during the Society's existence. Time and again, the remarkable accounts of the lives of the musicians and their virtuosity prove that she was able to assemble the finest instrumentalists available in New York City at the time. She was able to present new and unusual repertoire tailored to New York audiences, first in the renowned Aeolian Hall for nine seasons and then, switching to more informal salon concerts, in the Grand Ballroom at the Hotel Plaza for twelve seasons. Beebe believed passionately that chamber music was, alongside other fine arts, an important and essential part of a civilized and cultured society. To this end, she made a concerted effort to establish a permanent place for chamber music in the United States and her blueprint for success is still relevant today. Classical musicians of this and future generations can read her story, discover the hidden gems she uncovered, and realize the possibilities of this rich and enduring musical legacy.
Politics, Improvisation, and Musicking in Frederic Rzewski's `Which Side Are You On?' from North American Ballads.
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Discussions of the role of politics in Frederic Rzewski's music generally stop at surface elements: the title of the work, the use of a particular song, and guesses as to what left-leaning audience the piece is directed at. Similarly, discussion of the role of improvisation in Rzewski's work begins and ends simply at the mention of its existence. Using transcription and analysis of improvisations from recordings of "Which Side Are You On?" from North American Ballads combined with ideas about modeling from Christian Asplund, musicking from Christopher Small, dialogue from David Bohm, and Rzewski's own writings about music, I demonstrate how the political manifests at every level of the music, enabling listeners and performers to experience a socio-political situation beyond mere sloganeering, and the essential role improvisation plays in creating that experience.