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Composing with circles, spirals, and lines of fifths: Harmony and voice leading in the music of Nicolai Roslavets
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This dissertation proposes a new theoretical framework for the analysis of works of an important early twentieth-century Soviet composer Nicolai Roslavets. Roslavets was one of the few composers from his generation to develop his own unique compositional style. Although he welcomed the Russian revolution of 1917 and later held important political, professional, and social positions in Soviet society, in the 1930s he fell a victim to Stalinist cultural campaigns to eliminate all radical activity from Soviet art. Consequently, Roslavets lost his high positions in Soviet society and his name was erased from history books. It was not until the early 1980s that efforts were made both in Russia and the West to revive his name and analyze his music. Roslavets developed his own theory of pitch organization called the "New System of Tone Organization," in which he identified the synthetic chord as the driving element of each of his compositions. A synthetic chord is described as having three features: (1) it is a group of notes, usually arranged as a scale-like succession of pitches with a fixed progression of tones and semitones; (2) it is used both vertically and horizontally; and (3) it is used to define the total harmonic plan of the composition. Many theorists including Yury Kholopov, George Perle, and Anna Ferenc recognized that each of Roslavets's pieces is characterized by a contextual synthetic chord that travels through different transpositional levels; however, no theory explains the underlying symmetrical pattern through which the synthetic chord travels, causing its unique spellings. The current dissertation addresses Roslavets's unorthodox orthography, which features such peculiarities as triple sharps, and explains the structural importance of perfect fifths. Plotting the synthetic chords on different spaces of fifths--the circle, spiral, and line--reveals the underlying synthetic chord-path that can be characterized by my three types of symmetries: crisp symmetry, near-symmetry, and nested-crisp symmetry. I use pieces from 1913 through 1926--Nocturne-Quintet (1914), Sonata No. 1 for Viola and Piano (1926), Trois Compositions (1914), Trois Etudes (1914), and Cinq Préludes (1919-1922)--to show that Roslavets uses the deeper structure of fifths relations to create a novel musical language with distinct orthography and symmetrical chord-paths making him one of the most intriguing and innovative composers of his generation.
Las historias de vidas en el siglo XVII: Juan Pablo Martir Rizo
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Hispanic & Luso Brazilian Literatures & Languages
Abstract LAS HISTORIAS DE VIDA EN EL SIGLO XVII: JUAN PABLO MÁRTIR RIZO by Graciela Bazet-Broitman Adviser: Distinguished Professor Lía Schwartz This dissertation examines the role of the historias de vida (stories of lives) in XVII century Spain with particular focus on the stories of lives written by Juan Pablo Mártir Rizo. The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to discuss the genre of said writings, which some critics, based on an apparent lack of concern by Mártir Rizo for historical documents and facts, have categorized as literature and, therefore, fiction, but which some others consider as truly historiographical texts; 2) to contest the characteristic of "practical" that was given by a particular critic to the historiography of the Spanish Baroque because one of its main objectives was to influence the readers and move them to carry out certain actions and abstain from others. To be able to arrive to a solid conclusion to both problems, the study first presents a brief but thorough historical background that focuses on the writing of the stories of lives and its relationship with literature and history, as well as on the role attributed to history in the various periods since the surfacing of the first bioi in ancient Greece. This study also analyzes the philosophical background that permeates the prevalent worldview during Spanish Golden Age, namely two schools of thought: skepticism and neo-stoicism. The study goes on to analyze in detail three of the four stories of lives written by Mártir Rizo, particularly centering on the historical sources and the many digressions that Mártir Rizo introduces and are such a fundamental component of his lives. Finally, this study considers three questions the responses to which were essential to determine the genre of Mártir Rizo's stories of lives and the place that the Spanish author allocated to historical facts: 1) How were his works considered by his readers? 2) How were these works classified in the libraries of his time? 3) Which were the historical sources available to Mártir Rizo and what use if any did he make of them?
Two Sides to a Drum: Duality in Trinidad Orisha Music and Culture
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This dissertation presents an ethnographic and historical study of music and culture in the Yoruba-derived Trinidad Orisha religion in Trinidad and New York City. Its objectives are: (1) to provide description and documentation of Trinidad Orisha music, an understudied music genre in the African diaspora; (2) to shed light on the historical, cultural, and demographic factors contributing to the development of Trinidad Orisha music by its practitioners; and (3) to provide substance for meaningful comparisons between Trinidad Orisha music and other Yoruba-derived musics. Based on four years of fieldwork (2008-2012) in Trinidad and in Brooklyn, NY, the study explores Trinidad Orisha as a neo-African musical and religious practice at a crossroads of often oppositional transnational and postcolonial forces. The history of the religion includes criminalization, ridicule, and recent valorization as part of a middle class revival, and is emblematic of larger social and political transformations that have occurred since Trinidad's independence and the development of New York as an essential locale within the Trinidadian diaspora. The analysis is based on data gathered from field recordings of Trinidad Orisha ceremonies; formal interviews and informal conversations with Trinidad Orisha musicians, priests and others; and the author's own observations made while drumming during Trinidad Orisha rituals, including subjective insights into his experiences of the music, as both performer and listener. Musical performance is the main context for the practice of the Trinidad Orisha religion, and so the dissertation privileges music, and the experiences of musicians, as a central means of understanding the religion's history and present. The thesis of the dissertation invokes the physicality of a Trinidad Orisha drum - double-sided and thus approachable from more than one angle - as a metaphor for a basic duality in a complex cultural practice that is simultaneously Yoruba and Trinidadian. The conception of duality in Trinidad Orisha music and culture also refers to the push and pull between preservation and innovation; marginalization and revivalism; diaspora and homeland. The dialogue between these various forces is at the heart of understanding Trinidad Orisha music and its contextualization among musics of the African diaspora.
Landscape Aesthetics and the Sublime in France, 1748-1830
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This dissertation examines the expression of the sublime in French painting between the years 1748 and 1830, a period spanning ancien régime, Revolution, Terror, Directory, First French Empire, and Bourbon Restoration. It reveals the existence and persistence of a grand classical strain of the sublime derived from Longinus's first century On the Sublime that was passed into the eighteenth century by Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux's 1674 French translation, Traité du sublime [Treatise on the Sublime]. These works stress noble greatness and elevation more than the fear and terror more commonly associated during this period with the sublime as articulated by Edmund Burke in his 1757 A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. In addition to establishing the existence and examining the articulation of the sublime in eighteenth-century France that is primarily based on the conveyance of noble elevation and greatness, this dissertation also suggests that the French sublime is unique in that it incorporates the influence of the Burkean sublime of fear and terror. Thus, the sublime in France is what I call multivalent; it can express both greatness and fear, elevation and terror. This complex admixture is significant for its rich and varied range of meanings particularly in the context of landscape painting, a relatively unimportant category of painting at the beginning of the eighteenth century, but which became a major genre in France between 1740 and 1790. This time period that forms the core of this dissertation, not incidentally, also saw the emergence of an intense focus on the subject of aesthetics, including the aesthetic category of the sublime. In his commentary on work submitted to the Paris Salon, the French critic Denis Diderot devotes roughly a quarter of his Salon of 1767 to the work of Claude-Joseph Vernet (1714-1789) and Hubert Robert (1733-1808). In his elaborate discussion of these artists, one who had a penchant for painting wild seascapes and shipwrecks and the other who had a proclivity for painting ruins, Diderot lent critical weight not only to the genre of landscape but also to the connection between their work and the sublime. This is significant in that unlike England with its well-documented sublime landscape tradition, eighteenth-century France has been viewed as virtually bereft of a sublime tradition due to its close ties to the Classical landscape tradition. The sublime is a powerful and nuanced concept that expressed a cultural and political ideology tied to the grandness and continuity of France. More than an inert aesthetic category, the sublime is also an incredibly flexible and powerful conduit of a wide range of ideas. It can be seen expressed in Vernet's emphasis on the heroic individual in his paintings of shipwrecks, Pierre-Jacques Volaire's (1729-1799) emphasis on the natural power of volcanic eruption as a vital new way of viewing the natural world, and in Robert's painting of the Louvre in ruins that attests to the cultural monumentalization of France projected into the future. Finally, the elevation, or apotheosis, of the cultural and political--sublime greatness--of Restoration France was inscribed on the ceiling of the 1826 Musée Charles X in the institutionalization of that sublime ideology.
Effects of Group Parent-Training with Online Parent-Teacher Communication on the Homework Performance of Elementary School Students
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Homework Improvement Program, a 5-week group-formatted parent training program, in enhancing the homework performance of children experiencing homework difficulties. The study was conducted in an elementary school with a sample consisting of the parents of seven students (N=7) in grades 5 and 6 who were experiencing significant homework difficulties. In accordance with the Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) model which emphasizes the importance of home-school communication, online Electronic Daily Report Card (EDRC) software was developed as a component of the program through which parents were provided a direct avenue of communication with their child's teacher. The EDRC attempted to address limitations of previously developed home-school communication methods, while maximizing efficiency, and minimizing teacher obligation. It was also designed to be user-friendly for parents. The EDRC informed parents of their child's homework assignments, instructions, and teacher expectations on a daily basis. It also served as a data collection tool through which parents could be provided with regular feedback regarding their child's progress through the program. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in improving homework completion rates for 100% of study participants. A PND analysis revealed the intervention to be Highly Effective in improving rates of homework completion for 57.14% of the participants (4), and Moderately Effective for the remaining 42.86% of participants (3). All students showed improvements in rates of homework completion, with gains maintained at a four-week follow-up. A PAND analysis of homework completion data revealed a large effect size (Phi=.90, 95%CI), with 95.08% of data non-overlapping with baseline rates. Parent ratings of problematic homework behaviors as reported on the Homework Problems Checklist (HPC) reflected a decrease in problematic homework behaviors from baseline to intervention completion, with improvements maintained at follow-up. Responses to treatment satisfaction questionnaires indicated that participants reported a very high level of satisfaction with all aspects of the program. These results suggest that by offering an interactive and collaborative school-based intervention that directly involves parents, positive behavior change can be accomplished that extends into both the home and school settings.
Normal Families and Mondromies of Holomorphic Motions
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We explore some generalizations of results in holomorphic motions that result from Earle's infinite-dimensional generalization of Montel's Theorem. We then investigate topological obstructions to extending holomorphic motions. We finish with some miscellaneous facts.
Examining the association of medication complexity with health-related quality of life in older adults receiving community-based long term services and supports
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Abstract EXAMINING THE ASSOCIATION OF MEDICATION COMPLEXITY WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN OLDER ADULTS RECEIVING COMMUNITY-BASED LONG TERM SERVICES AND SUPPORTS by Claudia A. Beck Adviser: Dr. Kathleen Nokes While the complexity of a medication regimen is a concern for all individuals, it is of significant concern for community-dwelling older adults who often require multiple medications to treat chronic health problems. Health related quality of life (HRQoL) has been identified as a key quality outcome measure when assessing care of older adults, particularly those with long-term care needs. Although the use of multiple medications has been widely explored in the literature, there is a paucity of data regarding the combination of several medication-related factors (number of active medications, therapeutic drug class, and medication regimen complexity) and HRQoL in older adults. Wilson and Cleary's health-related quality of life conceptual model was the theoretical framework used to guide this study. This secondary analysis examined the relationship among the number of active medications, the number of therapeutic drug classes, and medication regimen complexity and HRQoL in community-dwelling older adults (68% Hispanic, 75% female) who were recent recipients of home and community-based services (H&CBS). The subjects in this study (N =123) were enrolled in a large, multi-site study (N=470) (R01-AG025524, PI, M. Naylor). Medication-related data were obtained from medical charts, counted to include the active number of medications as all prescription and over the counter drugs (mean =9.3), and a therapeutic drug class tool (mean =4.9) measured the number of distinct therapeutic drug classes included in a medication regimen. Medication regimen complexity (mean = 20.6) was measured using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-12 v2) physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) measured HRQoL. After controlling for age, gender, education, race, ethnicity, marital status and cognitive status, it was determined that the number of active medications (beta coefficient -.497, p=.012) was a key predictor of physical health-related quality of life, while therapeutic drug class and medication regimen complexity were not associated with either physical or mental health-related quality of life. The number of medications impacts on physical health-related quality of life but the directionality of that relationship is not clear; there were no significant effects on mental health-related-related quality of life and medication-related variables. Keywords: Older adults, active medications, therapeutic drug class, medication regimen complexity, community-based long term services and supports.
The Volatile American Voter: Inconsistent Voting Behavior in the United States, 1948-2004
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This dissertation is a study of the political behavior, demographics, and attitudes of Americans who have been inconsistent in party choice, turnout, or both in presidential elections from 1948 to 2004. Most prior scholarship has indicated that these individuals, who play a pivotal role in electoral outcomes, have comprised a minority of the American electorate. The analyses presented here, however, reveal that these "volatile" voters have, from 1948 to 2004, comprised between 50.5 and 60.7 percent of the voting public. Volatile voters are, overall, less likely to be politically sophisticated than party-loyal voters. But the aggregation of all volatile voters into one group when assessing their levels of political aptitude and engagement obscures the fact that volatile sophisticates are plentiful in the United States, and have comprised between 18.1 and 27.0 percent of the electorate since the 1948 - a segment that is decisively large. The large distribution of volatile sophisticates, and volatile voters overall, provides support for the notion that voter engagement with political issues regularly overcomes the habitual party affinities of a substantial fraction of the American public, and that issues indeed matter to voters, most of whom engage them and act upon them in a reasoning manner. I additionally provide evidence, contrary to the findings in much voting and elections literature, that volatile voters can be reliably identified and quantified using sociological measures.
Trauma, mental health, and substance use among homeless families: The importance of shelter environment
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Mary Clare Lennon
Homelessness is at historical levels in the United States and New York City has not been immune to this nationwide trend. Homeless populations are not only increasing in number but are remaining in the shelter for longer periods of time. Homelessness, itself has been shown to have negative consequences on mental health and physical health, but its effects are particularly significant for families with children who have greater needs and who are more susceptible to negative experiences at early ages that can have lifelong impact. Despite this recent data there has been very little to no research on the potential impact of the shelter environment on the mental or physical well-being of homeless families. Thus, this dissertation research aims to fill this gap in the current literature by conducting a secondary analysis of the HIV Prevention Outreach for Parents and Early Adolescents (HOPE) study to test: 1) the association between three shelter related variables (i.e., time in the shelter, the perceived social environment of the shelter, and difficulty following shelter rules) and psychosocial outcomes for caregivers (i.e., mental health, parental stress, and substance use among caregivers), 2) the association between three shelter related variables (i.e., time in the shelter, the perceived social environment of the shelter, and difficulty following shelter rules) and psychosocial outcomes for youth (i.e., depressive symptoms, and substance use among caregivers), 3) the potential moderating effect of this perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following rules on the association between trauma and psychosocial outcomes for both youth residents and their caregivers. The sample for this research consisted of youth (ages 11 – 14) and their caregivers (n = 452) residing in 10 shelters in New York City. Hierarchical regressions were employed to test various models within the three aims of the study. In addition, sampling of residents within shelters and youth within families was accounted for in the analysis. Results of the analysis conducted indicate that the length of time in the shelter was not significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for youth and caregivers with two exceptions, namely caregiver mental health and parenting stress. Perception of the shelter environment was strongly associated with all psychosocial outcomes for caregivers and their youth, with the exception of caregiver substance use. Difficulty following shelter rules was significantly associated with all psychosocial outcomes for both youth and caregivers (although the youth substance use finding was counter to what was initially hypothesized). Trauma was also significantly associated with all psychosocial outcomes as well with the exception of parenting stress, and caregiver substance use. The findings from the third aim of the study revealed that his perceived social environment of the shelter did not prove to be a significant moderator of the association between trauma and psychosocial outcomes for youth and caregivers with the exception of youth substance use. Difficulty following rules was also not found to be as significant moderator with the exception of parenting stress and youth substance use. However both findings are counter-intuitive and discussed further in the concluding chapter. Thus, the findings support a more direct-effect relationship between the perceived social environment of the shelter and psychosocial outcomes as well as direct effects of difficulty following shelter rules and may also be indicative of a buffering effect. In addition, the findings of all three aims suggest an importance in the manner in which shelter is provided above and beyond providing a temporary residence.
Cyclic Pitch Organization in the Twelve-Tone Works of Aaron Copland
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Abstract CYCLIC PITCH ORGANIZATION IN THE TWELVE-TONE WORKS OF AARON COPLAND by Lisa S. Behrens Advisor: Joseph Straus Late in his career, Aaron Copland composed four twelve-tone works; the Quartet for Piano and Strings (1950), the Piano Fantasy (1957), ConnotationsInscape (1967). Rather than constituting a sudden conversion to serial composition, Copland's mature twelve-tone works constitute a revival of serial procedures that antedates and pervades his American works of the 1930s and 40s. Consequently, in this dissertation I will assert a stylistic continuity that informs the mature twelve-tone works, which also distinguishes Copland's tonal idiom. This continuity contradicts the distinction between Copland's "severe" and "simple," or "highbrow" and "lowbrow" styles, which has been previously promoted in the literature. Accordingly, I will show that Copland adapted twelve-tone principles to his already well-established idiom, transferring salient features of the harmonic language in his American works to a serial platform. As a result, all of the mature twelve-tone works employ cyclic row classes that are based on whole-tone relationships. The cyclic properties of those row classes generate a plethora of symmetrical constructs that recreate the distinctive fourth-and-fifth-harmonies that are typical of Copland's tonal harmonic language. There are four additional compositional principles that determine the organization of pitch: segmental invariance, whole-tone complementation, cyclic formal articulation, and a generalized collectional interaction between pentatonic, octatonic, and hexatonic sets.