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Striving for Integration: Referential Activity and Object Relational Level in a Sample of Bisexual Women
Year of Dissertation:
Sexuality has been theorized as a particular human experience that is driven, unmirrored in development, and enigmatic, not reaching what Fonagy describes as "second order representation." Yet, as a social being, one is expected to declare and publically live out a sexual identity. This study is situated within this point of contact between the visceral and the sociolinguistic, with particular attention paid to the experiences of bisexual women, whose potential challenges in articulating a sexual identity are considered. The study sample was comprised of forty bisexual women participating in the Dually Attracted Women's Narratives study (Levy-Warren, 2013) returning for the second phase of this longitudinal study (Caflisch, 2013). This work examined how the level of participants' internal object representations was related to language use as they spoke about their sexual identities. The first concept was operationalized by applying the Differentiation and Relatedness (DR) scale to the Object Relations Inventory. The language measures applied were those of Wilma Bucci's Discourse Attributes Analysis Program, which measures several linguistic characteristics, including the degrees of both emotional immersion (Referential Activity) and reflection in language. The results showed that a less integrated object representational world was associated with more vivid and immersive language. Higher levels of reflective language were found to be associated with more complex object representations. Explanations drawn from theory and empirical work are offered, focusing on the cognitive and regulatory role of more complex object representations. An analysis of interviews selected based on patterns of these empirical measures confirmed different language styles between those with relatively high and low object relational levels. These results could indicate different defensive processes being employed at different levels of object representation when discussing sexual identity. A qualitative examination of all forty interviews revealed a theme that was examined in depth, namely, how women represented gender, and how these representations might be related to the degree of integration of their object representations. The study provided some confirmation of psychoanalytic understandings of the role of internal object representations and the unique qualities of sexuality as a force. Clinical and theoretical implications regarding bisexual women are also discussed based on the quantitative and qualitative findings.
An Analysis of Social Referencing Stimulus Classes Among Children with Autism
Year of Dissertation:
Social referencing consists of a child looking to the affective responses of an adult, which serve as discriminative stimuli for subsequent responding in the context of ambiguity or novelty. In this study, social referencing was defined as discriminative responding under a two-link chain. The discriminative stimulus for the first link was the presentation of experimental stimuli in the presence of which an observing response was required. Link 2 consisted of a conditional discrimination. The discriminative stimulus for the second link was an affective stimulus from one of two sets presented by the experimenter. Two experiments were conducted to teach children with autism to respond differentially to affective stimuli within the social referencing response chain, and to determine if differential responding generalized to similar stimuli. Experiment 1 attempted to evaluate discriminative responding to two sets of six affective stimuli in Link 2 of social referencing while participants encountered stimuli representing three types of tasks pictured in their activity schedules (i.e., handwriting, retrieving objects, and scripted social interaction). Because discriminative responding was not acquired by any of the three participants under that training paradigm, Experiment 2 was conducted. During this experiment, participants were seated at desks and were presented with stimuli that signaled social referencing. One affective stimulus from each of the two sets was used as the training stimulus. The remaining affective stimuli from the two sets were presented as probe stimuli to determine the extent to which each was part of an already established stimulus class. Participants were taught to engage in differential responding using manual guidance, differential reinforcement, and error correction. In the presence of an affective display from set 1 (e.g., smiling and nodding head), the correct response was a keep response in which the participants placed the stimuli in a bin on the desk. In the presence of an affective display from set 2 (e.g., shake head with eyebrows turned down), the correct response was a discard response in which the participants placed the stimuli in a garbage bin on the floor. Correct responding on training trials increased above baseline levels for all three participants with the systematic introduction of conditional discrimination training. Probe responding was inconsistent across the three participants, obviating analysis of stimulus class formation.
Sex Differences in Progestational Effects on Cocaine-induced Behaviors and Neural Plasticity
Year of Dissertation:
Both clinical and rodent models have shown sexually dimorphic patterns in all phases of drug use and addiction (acquisition, maintenance and relapse). These sexually dimorphic responses to psychostimulants are hypothesized to be due to ovarian hormones. Progesterone has been reported to attenuate many of the behaviors associated with cocaine, in females. Progesterone inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor responses in intact male and female rats. Although progesterone attenuated cocaine-induced behavioral responses, it failed to alter cocaine-induced neural plasticity. Progesterone increased dendritic spine densities in the shell and core of the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcS, NAcC) of male rats. Chronic cocaine increased dendritic spines in NAcC, NacS, CA1 region of the hippocampus. In our third experiment, administration of progesterone and finastesteride, an Allopregnalone antagonist, inhibited the expression of cocaine-induced CPP in female but not male rats. In conclusion, progesterone reduces cocaine-induced locomotor activity and learned associations in rats, without reducing neural plasticity.
Ambient Text and the Urban Environment
Rebio Diaz Cardona
Year of Dissertation:
This dissertation explores the notion that texts become a key element in person-environment relations in the contemporary urban context. As we witness the rise of mobile communication and ubiquitous computing, there are more people spending more time using more text to do more things in more places. Texts of the most diverse styles, dimensions, and sources mediate people's relations with the environment and their activities in it. Drawing from observational work carried out in East Harlem/El Barrio in New York City, I consider texts as a type of `stuff' that we frequently encounter and enter in contact with on our way to encountering and entering in contact with other things in the urban environment. Texts are one of the means whereby the urban environment makes itself usable and available to us. Furthermore, in the contemporary context of technological change, texts become a basic means through which the network society (Castells, 1996, 2001) becomes visible, operable, tractable, and usable in the environment and in daily life. The central argument, then, is that our relationship to texts is being reconfigured by a number of emerging urban dynamics for which texts in turn do important work. Instead of the view that other media are driving attention away from text, I explore the alternative view that texts gain new relevance as a component of the urban environment and of the emerging network society. I look for the roots of this new relevance in three larger spatial processes: ubiquitous access to information and communication technologies, increased global mobility of populations, goods, and information, and the open, shared and participatory nature of the Internet and wireless communication. Texts are a key part of how the relationships between people, things and environments are re-spatialized in the contemporary context of global mobility and connectivity. In such context, text using becomes a key mode of engagement with environment, self, and others, while texts become a key urban infrastructure, supporting the hooking up of the space of flows and the space of places, and thus supporting the emergence of the network society.
The Effect of General-Case Training, Instructions, Feedback, and Rehearsal on the Acquisition of Music Sight-Reading by Advanced Flute Students
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Sight-reading music enables the performance of music that has not been previously learned. Without sight-reading skills, required behavior (e.g., learning new work, performing new music, and passing musical exams) is equivalent to learning a piece of standard repertoire. Therefore, all students should learn to sight-read. To date, no research has been done on the use of applied behavior analysis for teaching students how to improve music sight-reading. Sight-reading may be more efficiently taught if it is approached by planning for generalization of music-related behavior in music education. Therefore, the current study taught advanced flute students to improve their sight-reading skills with a treatment package that included general-case training, instructions, feedback and rehearsal. This study used a multiple-baseline-across-subjects research design for three advanced flute students during their regular lessons. There was a systematic decrease in sight-reading errors as treatment was introduced across subjects. Note errors and rhythm errors decreased by an average of 10% and 42% respectively. Frequency of repetitions and hesitations decreased by an average of 7 and 2 respectively. Therefore, the training package was effective in improving music sight-reading. Future research should investigate the use of general-case training and/or behavioral skills training in other flute-playing behavior, as well as in the teaching of other instruments. Future research should also investigate the components of the current package individually to determine if they would be as effective separately.
Voicing Care: Discourse, identity and the making of family caregivers
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Caring for a loved one was once considered a family matter - invisible work nested within the private sphere of home. Current advances in medical technology, altered illness patterns, extended life spans, and changes in traditional family structure have rendered family caregiving increasingly visible. Psychological/ medical literatures on family caregivers have traditionally focused on caregiver stress, strain, and burden; however, people actually experience caring for loved ones as part of a lived life. Research tools and perspectives that reflect the embeddedness of caregiving in social life are urgently needed. This qualitative study is based on the construct of caregiver voice. Voice is the manifestation of a given orientation toward caregiving and is used to explore the ways in which family caregivers create/negotiate/ understand the caregiver role through their interactions with others. Three caregiver voices are discussed: Caregiver as Patient, Caregiver as Kin, and Caregiver as Advocate. Each voice represents a different conceptualization of the family caregiver as it emerges from the intersection of historical influences, social organization, cultural meaning and personal experience. Utilizing multiple read method (Brown, Debold, Tappan, and Gilligan, 1989) informed by positioning theory (Davies and Harré, 1990), the study explores the patterns and positionings of these three voices as they emerge through the exchanges of a virtual support group for family caregivers. Posts made by group participants over a 6-month period (N=138) are analyzed for levels of caregiver labeling and identity, and for the presence and prevalence of the three caregiver voices. Simple summary statistics are used to describe patterns of interaction between and across the voices. Finally, a conversational thread (an original post and eight responses to the post) is analyzed how the Patient, Kin and Advocate voices appear, disappear, overlap and counterbalance each other over the course of an exchange. Key findings are used to support voice as a useful construct in the study of family caregiving, and the utility of positioning theory combined with multiple read method in the examination of caregiver narratives. Implications for future research are discussed.
MyDigitalFootprint.ORG: Young People and the Proprietary Ecology of Everyday Data
Year of Dissertation:
Young people are the canaries in our contemporary data mine. They are at the forefront of complex negotiations over privacy, property, and security in environments saturated with information systems. The productive and entertaining promises of proprietary media have led to widespread adoption among youth whose daily activities now generate troves of data that are mined for governance and profit. As they text, email, network, and search within these proprietary ecologies, young people's identity configurations link up with modes of capitalist production. The MyDigitalFootprint.ORG Project was thus initiated to unpack and engage young people's material social relations with/in proprietary ecologies through participatory action design research. The project began by interviewing New Yorkers ages 14-19. Five of these interviewees then participated as co-researchers in a Youth Design and Research Collective (YDRC) to analyze interview findings through the collaborative design of an open source social network. In taking a medium as our method, co-researchers took on the role of social network producers and gained new perspectives otherwise mystified to consumers. Considering my work with the YDRC I argue that involving youth in designing information ecologies fosters critical capacities for participating in acts of research and knowledge production. More critical participation in these ecologies, even proprietary ones, is necessary for opening opaque aspects of our environment and orienting data circulation toward more equitable and just ends.
Measuring Relational Preferences Within an Equivalence Class
Year of Dissertation:
Two experiments used post-class formation within-class relational assessment test performances to evaluate whether participants demonstrated preference for certain members of an equivalence class based on the type of relation that existed between class members. This research also examined certain procedural factors that influenced the percentage of participants who formed classes, referred to as yield. In Experiment 1, two 5-node 7-member equivalence classes, consisting entirely of nonsense syllables, were established using the simultaneous protocol. After class formation, the effects of the different relations between stimuli were evaluated using within-class relational assessment tests. Only one of the six participants in Experiment 1 successfully formed classes, but that one participant showed an absolute preference for transitive relations over equivalence ones, and for baseline relations over symmetrical ones. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, except that one of the nonsense syllable stimuli in each class was replaced by a pictorial stimulus. Under these conditions, class formation was enhanced, with classes being formed by 5 of 13 participants. During the relational assessment tests, each of these participants demonstrated essentially complete preferences for transitive relations over equivalence relations and for trained baseline relations over symmetrical relations. Thus, this research demonstrates that the members of equivalence classes are differentially related to each other based on relational type.
In the Cockpit: The Political Ecology of Integrated Conservation and Development in Cockpit Country, Jamaica.
Year of Dissertation:
In response to the top-down nature of many environmental protection efforts and the technical approaches that prove detrimental to the livelihoods of people located in and around conservation areas in the Caribbean, community based participatory resource management and sustainable livelihood programs have become commonplace in the environmental protection discourse. However, they often negatively affect the people at the bottom of these programs by promising livelihood improvements that rarely come to fruition due to the tensions between conservation and development. In this dissertation, I present an ethnographic account of attempts at integrated conservation and development in the bauxite rich Cockpit Country of central Jamaica. This research concerns the environmental practices and values, and collaboration of people "participating" in Local Forestry Management Committees (LFMC) that were established to provide economic alternatives to bauxite mining in Cockpit Country. I conducted research for this dissertation in various phases from 2008 to 2010, culminating in five months of fieldwork in 2010. Working with The Nature Conservancy, USAID, The Forestry Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, The Windsor Research Centre, Cockpit Country residents participating in LFMCs, and Cockpit Country residents who did not participate in these programs, I examined the alternatives to the agricultural practices currently employed in Cockpit Country communities and the bauxite mining proposed by the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) in the area. Using archival data, interviews, surveys and participant observation, I examined the problems and potentials of the LFMCs and their affiliated programs. My analysis concerns the relationships among the people at the top and bottom of these programs, their varying conceptions of nature, and their collaboration in the development of livelihood practices intended to promote an equitable and participatory process of integrated conservation and development.
The Relationship between Social-Emotional Development, Academic Achievement and Parenting Practices in Young Children who Attend Head Start
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During the preschool years, children develop social-emotional skills – such as cooperation and self-regulation – which predict later academic achievement. Research shows that parents play an important role in the development of these skills. However, it remains unclear how specific parenting practices may facilitate the relationship between social-emotional development and academic success. Often, children who grow up in low-income families are at risk for a variety of cognitive and emotional problems. Head Start is a federal program offered to low-income families that provides services, including early childhood education programs, to help offset these risks. Using Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory, the purpose of this dissertation was to explore the relationship among these three factors -- social-emotional skills, academic achievement, and parenting practices -- in an effort to better understand child development. There were three primary aims of this dissertation: (1) to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of several social-emotional skills for children who attended Head Start at age three; (2) understand the relationship between social-emotional skills during preschool and academic achievement at the end of kindergarten; and (3) understand how parent characteristics can influence the relationship between social-emotional skills in preschool and academic achievement by the end of kindergarten. Using a large, nationally representative data set from the Head Start program, several specific research questions were addressed through secondary data analysis. Findings from backwards regressions and moderation analysis indicate that there was a relationship between social-emotional skills at age three and academic achievement at age five, and that these relationships were sometimes moderated by parenting approaches.