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Roles of dopamine D1 and D2, opioid and glutamate NMDA receptor signaling in the acquisition and expression of fat- and glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats and c-Fos analysis of the dopamine mesotelencephalic and nigrostriatal pathways following intake of sugars and fats in rats.
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Systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA antagonist, MK-801, demonstrated that acquisition, but not expression, were found to affect the orosensory-mediated (flavor/flavor: f/f) fructose-conditioned flavor preference (CFP). The present studies demonstrated a similar outcome when f/f and f/n processes were combined. Fat-CFP and glucose-CFP studies indicated that systemic injections of the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, were able to significantly reduce acquisition, but not expression, of Corn-Oil (CO)-CFP and glucose-CFP. Both studies appear to have mitigated effects on acquisition as compared to the separate orosensory and postingestive CFP studies. Previous studies found that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (raclopride) antagonists blocked both the acquisition and expression of the orosensory-mediated fructose-CFP and sham sucrose-CFP. DA D1, but not D2, blocked the f/n acquisition, and to a lesser degree, expression, of IG sucrose-CFP. The current study of both fat-CFP and glucose-CFP found that DA D1 and D2 antagonists did attenuate the acquisition and expression of conditioned flavor preference of CO-CFP and oral glucose-CFP, but to a lesser degree. Similar to how a combined f/f and f/n solution is affected by an NMDA antagonist, DA D1 and D2 antagonists do affect the combined f/f and f/n solutions of CO and glucose, but not to the degree observed for fructose-CFP or IG glucose-CFP. It is suspected that certain areas of the mesotelencephalic and nigrostriatal DA pathways affect CFP, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the amygdala (AMY), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), or the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen: CPu). The present study examined the origin of DA (ventral tegmental area: VTA) and the five projection zones (NAc shell, NAc core, AMY, mPFc and CPu) simultaneously for fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) following oral ingestion of CO (f/f and f/n), glucose (f/f and f/n), fructose (f/f) and three controls (water, saccharin and xanthan gum). CO, which was isocaloric to fructose and glucose, elicited significantly higher FLI in the NAc core, the AMY, the mPFC, the VTA and the CPu than the controls. Glucose elicited significantly higher FLI in the AMY, the CPu and the NAc core than the controls. Fructose elicited significantly higher FLI in the AMY and the CPu than the controls.
Couple Communication, Attachment Status and Relationship Satisfaction.
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Researchers have been working to understand how relationships begin, what makes them last, what the ingredients are for a satisfying relationship, and what predicts their dissolution. Adult attachment has been found to be associated with the formation, satisfaction, maintenance of, and communication within romantic relationships. The present study explores the associations among adult attachment, communication, and marital and premarital satisfaction. Most studies rely on an individual's self-report of his or her intimate relationship, while few base their conclusions on observations of relationship interaction. This study looks at specific, audiotaped, interactions between couples as well as self-reports of attachment style, communication style, and relationship satisfaction. There were a number of significant findings that indicate a relationship between couple communication, relationship satisfaction, and attachment status. In addition, there were replications of previous findings on couple communication, couple attachment, and relationship satisfaction. The majority of hypotheses were supported: relationship satisfaction was significantly linked to attachment status, positive aspects of communication were linked to women's attachment status, men's use of Support Validation was significantly related to their partners' attachment status, couple communication and relationship satisfaction were significantly related, and relationship satisfaction (specifically problem intensity) was significantly associated with couple communication. The present study evidences a connection between couples' intrapsychic attachment representations (as measured by self-reports) and their interpersonal relationship communication behavior (as observed using the IDCS). It makes a major contribution to the couple attachment literature by linking the intrapsychic sphere of attachment to the interpersonal sphere of communication behavior.
Striving for Integration: Referential Activity and Object Relational Level in a Sample of Bisexual Women
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Sexuality has been theorized as a particular human experience that is driven, unmirrored in development, and enigmatic, not reaching what Fonagy describes as "second order representation." Yet, as a social being, one is expected to declare and publically live out a sexual identity. This study is situated within this point of contact between the visceral and the sociolinguistic, with particular attention paid to the experiences of bisexual women, whose potential challenges in articulating a sexual identity are considered. The study sample was comprised of forty bisexual women participating in the Dually Attracted Women's Narratives study (Levy-Warren, 2013) returning for the second phase of this longitudinal study (Caflisch, 2013). This work examined how the level of participants' internal object representations was related to language use as they spoke about their sexual identities. The first concept was operationalized by applying the Differentiation and Relatedness (DR) scale to the Object Relations Inventory. The language measures applied were those of Wilma Bucci's Discourse Attributes Analysis Program, which measures several linguistic characteristics, including the degrees of both emotional immersion (Referential Activity) and reflection in language. The results showed that a less integrated object representational world was associated with more vivid and immersive language. Higher levels of reflective language were found to be associated with more complex object representations. Explanations drawn from theory and empirical work are offered, focusing on the cognitive and regulatory role of more complex object representations. An analysis of interviews selected based on patterns of these empirical measures confirmed different language styles between those with relatively high and low object relational levels. These results could indicate different defensive processes being employed at different levels of object representation when discussing sexual identity. A qualitative examination of all forty interviews revealed a theme that was examined in depth, namely, how women represented gender, and how these representations might be related to the degree of integration of their object representations. The study provided some confirmation of psychoanalytic understandings of the role of internal object representations and the unique qualities of sexuality as a force. Clinical and theoretical implications regarding bisexual women are also discussed based on the quantitative and qualitative findings.
An Analysis of Social Referencing Stimulus Classes Among Children with Autism
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Social referencing consists of a child looking to the affective responses of an adult, which serve as discriminative stimuli for subsequent responding in the context of ambiguity or novelty. In this study, social referencing was defined as discriminative responding under a two-link chain. The discriminative stimulus for the first link was the presentation of experimental stimuli in the presence of which an observing response was required. Link 2 consisted of a conditional discrimination. The discriminative stimulus for the second link was an affective stimulus from one of two sets presented by the experimenter. Two experiments were conducted to teach children with autism to respond differentially to affective stimuli within the social referencing response chain, and to determine if differential responding generalized to similar stimuli. Experiment 1 attempted to evaluate discriminative responding to two sets of six affective stimuli in Link 2 of social referencing while participants encountered stimuli representing three types of tasks pictured in their activity schedules (i.e., handwriting, retrieving objects, and scripted social interaction). Because discriminative responding was not acquired by any of the three participants under that training paradigm, Experiment 2 was conducted. During this experiment, participants were seated at desks and were presented with stimuli that signaled social referencing. One affective stimulus from each of the two sets was used as the training stimulus. The remaining affective stimuli from the two sets were presented as probe stimuli to determine the extent to which each was part of an already established stimulus class. Participants were taught to engage in differential responding using manual guidance, differential reinforcement, and error correction. In the presence of an affective display from set 1 (e.g., smiling and nodding head), the correct response was a keep response in which the participants placed the stimuli in a bin on the desk. In the presence of an affective display from set 2 (e.g., shake head with eyebrows turned down), the correct response was a discard response in which the participants placed the stimuli in a garbage bin on the floor. Correct responding on training trials increased above baseline levels for all three participants with the systematic introduction of conditional discrimination training. Probe responding was inconsistent across the three participants, obviating analysis of stimulus class formation.
Sex Differences in Progestational Effects on Cocaine-induced Behaviors and Neural Plasticity
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Both clinical and rodent models have shown sexually dimorphic patterns in all phases of drug use and addiction (acquisition, maintenance and relapse). These sexually dimorphic responses to psychostimulants are hypothesized to be due to ovarian hormones. Progesterone has been reported to attenuate many of the behaviors associated with cocaine, in females. Progesterone inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor responses in intact male and female rats. Although progesterone attenuated cocaine-induced behavioral responses, it failed to alter cocaine-induced neural plasticity. Progesterone increased dendritic spine densities in the shell and core of the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcS, NAcC) of male rats. Chronic cocaine increased dendritic spines in NAcC, NacS, CA1 region of the hippocampus. In our third experiment, administration of progesterone and finastesteride, an Allopregnalone antagonist, inhibited the expression of cocaine-induced CPP in female but not male rats. In conclusion, progesterone reduces cocaine-induced locomotor activity and learned associations in rats, without reducing neural plasticity.
Ambient Text and the Urban Environment
Rebio Diaz Cardona
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This dissertation explores the notion that texts become a key element in person-environment relations in the contemporary urban context. As we witness the rise of mobile communication and ubiquitous computing, there are more people spending more time using more text to do more things in more places. Texts of the most diverse styles, dimensions, and sources mediate people's relations with the environment and their activities in it. Drawing from observational work carried out in East Harlem/El Barrio in New York City, I consider texts as a type of `stuff' that we frequently encounter and enter in contact with on our way to encountering and entering in contact with other things in the urban environment. Texts are one of the means whereby the urban environment makes itself usable and available to us. Furthermore, in the contemporary context of technological change, texts become a basic means through which the network society (Castells, 1996, 2001) becomes visible, operable, tractable, and usable in the environment and in daily life. The central argument, then, is that our relationship to texts is being reconfigured by a number of emerging urban dynamics for which texts in turn do important work. Instead of the view that other media are driving attention away from text, I explore the alternative view that texts gain new relevance as a component of the urban environment and of the emerging network society. I look for the roots of this new relevance in three larger spatial processes: ubiquitous access to information and communication technologies, increased global mobility of populations, goods, and information, and the open, shared and participatory nature of the Internet and wireless communication. Texts are a key part of how the relationships between people, things and environments are re-spatialized in the contemporary context of global mobility and connectivity. In such context, text using becomes a key mode of engagement with environment, self, and others, while texts become a key urban infrastructure, supporting the hooking up of the space of flows and the space of places, and thus supporting the emergence of the network society.
The Effect of General-Case Training, Instructions, Feedback, and Rehearsal on the Acquisition of Music Sight-Reading by Advanced Flute Students
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Sight-reading music enables the performance of music that has not been previously learned. Without sight-reading skills, required behavior (e.g., learning new work, performing new music, and passing musical exams) is equivalent to learning a piece of standard repertoire. Therefore, all students should learn to sight-read. To date, no research has been done on the use of applied behavior analysis for teaching students how to improve music sight-reading. Sight-reading may be more efficiently taught if it is approached by planning for generalization of music-related behavior in music education. Therefore, the current study taught advanced flute students to improve their sight-reading skills with a treatment package that included general-case training, instructions, feedback and rehearsal. This study used a multiple-baseline-across-subjects research design for three advanced flute students during their regular lessons. There was a systematic decrease in sight-reading errors as treatment was introduced across subjects. Note errors and rhythm errors decreased by an average of 10% and 42% respectively. Frequency of repetitions and hesitations decreased by an average of 7 and 2 respectively. Therefore, the training package was effective in improving music sight-reading. Future research should investigate the use of general-case training and/or behavioral skills training in other flute-playing behavior, as well as in the teaching of other instruments. Future research should also investigate the components of the current package individually to determine if they would be as effective separately.
Voicing Care: Discourse, identity and the making of family caregivers
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Caring for a loved one was once considered a family matter - invisible work nested within the private sphere of home. Current advances in medical technology, altered illness patterns, extended life spans, and changes in traditional family structure have rendered family caregiving increasingly visible. Psychological/ medical literatures on family caregivers have traditionally focused on caregiver stress, strain, and burden; however, people actually experience caring for loved ones as part of a lived life. Research tools and perspectives that reflect the embeddedness of caregiving in social life are urgently needed. This qualitative study is based on the construct of caregiver voice. Voice is the manifestation of a given orientation toward caregiving and is used to explore the ways in which family caregivers create/negotiate/ understand the caregiver role through their interactions with others. Three caregiver voices are discussed: Caregiver as Patient, Caregiver as Kin, and Caregiver as Advocate. Each voice represents a different conceptualization of the family caregiver as it emerges from the intersection of historical influences, social organization, cultural meaning and personal experience. Utilizing multiple read method (Brown, Debold, Tappan, and Gilligan, 1989) informed by positioning theory (Davies and Harré, 1990), the study explores the patterns and positionings of these three voices as they emerge through the exchanges of a virtual support group for family caregivers. Posts made by group participants over a 6-month period (N=138) are analyzed for levels of caregiver labeling and identity, and for the presence and prevalence of the three caregiver voices. Simple summary statistics are used to describe patterns of interaction between and across the voices. Finally, a conversational thread (an original post and eight responses to the post) is analyzed how the Patient, Kin and Advocate voices appear, disappear, overlap and counterbalance each other over the course of an exchange. Key findings are used to support voice as a useful construct in the study of family caregiving, and the utility of positioning theory combined with multiple read method in the examination of caregiver narratives. Implications for future research are discussed.
Art as Communication: Employing Gricean Principles of Communication as a Model for Art Appreciation
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Abstract How and why artworks elicit varied preferences and judgments among different individuals remains a topic with many unresolved issues. For instance, individuals with little artistic experience tend to show little appreciation for abstract art, even though such works often show a highly skilled organization of visual elements. A key aspect of a positive aesthetic experience concerns the ability of viewers to construct meaning. I propose that viewers attempt to make meaning of artworks due to a sense that art is a communicative process. Here I attempt an application of one intentionalist model of communication, the Gricean framework, to visual art. I examine a great deal of empirical psychological research on art appreciation and subsume the research under the Gricean model. A survey instrument was developed to capture artistic communication and assess its usefulness in predicting aesthetic liking. A key component to this model is the cooperative principle, the implicit agreement of those engaged in a dialogue are doing so with the intent to be understood. With the cooperative principle established four maxims follow to facilitate meaning making in verbal discourse; quality, quantity, meaning, and relation. These maxims along with intent were operationalized according to prior literature and measured on a 6-point Likert scale. Using Rasch analysis over several rounds of testing with artists and non-artists, the survey instrument was refined; the interitem correlations for each construct were robust and reliable. Hierarchical liner modeling was used to assess the predictive power of each maxim and intent for aesthetic liking for both artists and non-artist for images that range in their level of abstractedness. The level one analysis showed significant effects for all variables with positive coefficients, indicating that maxim fulfillment (or understanding nonfulfillment as intentional) was related to increased liking. The level two analysis showed that all maxims with the exception of quantity maintained their relative weight in predicting liking; quantity was more effective in predicting liking as images became more representational. Artist and non-artist differences in maxim fulfillment, intent, and liking were examined for the four most abstract and representational images following the logic that differences seen in previous research for these two groups might be a function of understanding nonfulfillment of the maxims to be intentional. There were no differences seen for artists and non-artists for the four most representational images. However, for the four most abstract images there were differences seen for all the maxims and liking but not for intent; the differences were in the direction of the artists having significantly higher mean ratings. The nonsignificant intent scores indicate that even with abstract artworks the cooperative principle is met for both groups therefore it can be argued that artists see intentional nonfulfillment whereas non-artists see violations. In order to disrupt the cooperative principle in study two creator type (animal, child, and artist) was varied with the expectation that viewers would not expect an animal to communicate in a similar way as a child or an artist. Hierarchical linear modeling was done separately for each attributed creator type for each maxim in predicting liking. All maxims and intent when looked at individually were significant predictors of liking for the attributed child creator, although the coefficient for quantity was negative indicating the less visual elements, or less fulfillment, the more images were liked; all but quantity were significant predictors for the attributed animal and artist. The disagreement of quantity from the first study could be a function of the abstractness of the images, which was necessary for them to be plausibly created by any of the three creator types. A follow-up ANOVA showed that intent did not vary as a function of creator type. A median split was performed to indicate those who are low and high in intent to examine patterns in the data. All follow-up factorial ANOVAs showed intent as a significant between-subjects factor with results indicating those high in intent provided higher evaluations for each maxim and liking. These findings are interesting because they give support to the idea that those who are engaged in the process of wanting to understand or make meaning rate the maxims and liking different than those who are less engaged cooperatively. Also of interest is that there are high and low intent individuals in each of the three creator types; so the use of animals in this study did not push the limit of the cooperative principle quite far enough. Future studies would have to examine this issue. It could be that individuals automatically engage with art as a place to derive meaning and there isn’t a way to push this factor. The take home however is that the Gricean framework thus far has shown to be a fruitful means of capturing perceived artistic communication and how that contributes to liking. It is possible to create measurement tools for other art types, such as music, performance, or literature.
MyDigitalFootprint.ORG: Young People and the Proprietary Ecology of Everyday Data
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Young people are the canaries in our contemporary data mine. They are at the forefront of complex negotiations over privacy, property, and security in environments saturated with information systems. The productive and entertaining promises of proprietary media have led to widespread adoption among youth whose daily activities now generate troves of data that are mined for governance and profit. As they text, email, network, and search within these proprietary ecologies, young people's identity configurations link up with modes of capitalist production. The MyDigitalFootprint.ORG Project was thus initiated to unpack and engage young people's material social relations with/in proprietary ecologies through participatory action design research. The project began by interviewing New Yorkers ages 14-19. Five of these interviewees then participated as co-researchers in a Youth Design and Research Collective (YDRC) to analyze interview findings through the collaborative design of an open source social network. In taking a medium as our method, co-researchers took on the role of social network producers and gained new perspectives otherwise mystified to consumers. Considering my work with the YDRC I argue that involving youth in designing information ecologies fosters critical capacities for participating in acts of research and knowledge production. More critical participation in these ecologies, even proprietary ones, is necessary for opening opaque aspects of our environment and orienting data circulation toward more equitable and just ends.