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DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURALISTIC OBSERVATIONAL PARENTING PRACTICE ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR EXTERNALIZING BEHAVIOR RESEARCH
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Externalizing behavior problems have severe clinical implications. In fact, they have been found to be the primary basis for mental health referrals in early childhood. Findings from research on the etiology and development of externalizing behavior problems indicate these in addition to having significant effects throughout the life span effects also extend across multiple generations. Family and child development research consistently finds that one of the most significant modifiable factors in the prevention and treatment of externalizing behavior problems in early childhood is parenting practices. Unfortunately, much of the extant literature is limited by parenting measures that are prone to recall bias, impression management, and limited ecological validity. Furthermore, ethnic minority families and families of low socioeconomic status are greatly underrepresented in the research examining the relationship between parenting practices and externalizing behavior problems as well as in the research on the development of parenting measures and research methodology to further examine this relationship. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to develop and validate a parenting coding system, the iPARENT, to assess naturally occurring parenting behavior data obtained by a novel recording device, the iEAR, in the home; (2) to identify and measure the degree of parenting practices empirically shown to increase the risk for child externalizing behavior problems in a sample of young mothers and examine how it relates to mothers’ self-report of their own parenting stress, parenting practices, and their children’s behavior as well as observed child behavior; and (3) to assess feasibility of iEAR and iPARENT use. An ethnically diverse sample of 89 college mothers and their one- to six-year-old children participated in the study. Mothers were recruited from a public Northeastern University via the college’s Child Care Center, flyers posted on campus, and in-person recruitment on campus. Mothers were a mean age of 24 years (SD = 2.92) and children were a mean age of 3.71 years (SD = 1.49); 57.3% of the children were male. Mothers completed self-report measures of parenting stress, parenting practices, and child behavior. Parenting practices and child behavior data were also obtained through iEAR observations and were coded according to the iPARENT coding scheme. Results indicated that the iPARENT is a reliable measure of parenting and child behaviors. On average, mothers spent 62% of their interactions with their children delivering information; 26% delivering commands (of which 62% did not give the child an opportunity to comply); 10% delivering criticisms; and .02% delivering praise. An exploratory factor analysis with a target rotation revealed that the iPARENT consists of a three-factor structure: “Warmth,” “Harshness,” and “Ineffective demands for compliance.” Convergent validity could not be established between the iPARENT and mothers’ self-report on the Parenting Scale; however, the iPARENT demonstrated good discriminant validity. A significant relationship was found between mothers’ self-reported parenting stress and observed negative affect and praise. Mothers’ engagement and critical remarks significantly predicted concurrent child noncompliance frequency. Harshness of mothers’ criticism significantly predicted concurrent child backtalk frequency. iPARENT assessed parenting practices were not found to significantly predict mothers’ reports of child misbehavior. However, post-hoc analyses revealed that for children ages four-years and older, iPARENT assessed noncompliance significantly predicted mothers’ reports of child behavior, suggesting that the iPARENT may be a more valid assessment tool for children at least four-years-old. Lastly, the iEAR was found to be feasible for research practices and to potentially assist with the retention of ethnic minority and low SES families in observational research. The iEAR and the iPARENT show potential in obtaining reliable and valid parenting and child behavior data of at-risk families. Further research is warranted to examine the iPARENT’s ability to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical samples. Also, further research should aim to replicate findings with other samples of ethnic minority families, fathers, and a larger sample of older children in order to generalize findings and further validate use of the iPARENT in child behavior research.
FACIAL EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION FOLLOWING VOICE TREATMENTS IN INDIVIDUALS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE
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A growing body of work has documented impairments in emotional facial expression (i.e., masked facies) in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). These impairments negatively impact patients' social interactions and functioning in daily life. However, little attention has been given to remediating facial emotional expression deficits in PD. Preliminary research has demonstrated that the treatment of voice using the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT®; Ramig et al., 1995) has beneficial effects on limited aspects of facial expression in PD (Spielman et al., 2003). The present study extends the literature by examining the effects of two voice treatments on facial expression in PD in a comprehensive way, including facial mobility (FM) and three aspects of facial emotional expressivity (i.e., frequency [EF], variability [EV] and intensity [EI]). Participants included 56 posers, individuals who produced emotional and non-emotional monologues, and 18 raters, individuals who rated posers' facial expressions from video-recorded monologues. Ratings were made on a 7-point Likert scale for the four aspects of facial expression. Raters were trained to criterion, and reliability was high for each emotional expression variable (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient range .85 to .90). The study included four poser groups: 3 PD groups whose posers were randomly assigned into an LSVT, Articulation Voice Treatment (ARTIC), or a no treatment control group, and a demographically matched healthy control group (NC). Findings revealed that PD male posers displayed impaired facial expression at baseline compared to NCs on all variables examined, although PD women did not differ from NCs for any aspect of facial expression. Treatment findings showed that patients who received LSVT were rated as having higher FM, EF, EV, and EI after treatment, four weeks later, than at baseline. This increase was not observed for the 3 other poser groups. It is speculated that LSVT improves facial expression because facial and vocal expression are emotional communication channels that exist within a larger network of emotional processing. Facial and vocal emotional expression are linked at several levels of neural organization: cortical, subcortical, and cranial nerve. The broader clinical implications of our findings are that masked facies can be remediated using LSVT.
The developmental trajectory of contour integration in autism spectrum disorders
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Sensory input is inherently ambiguous and complex, so perception is believed to be achieved by combining incoming sensory information with prior knowledge. One model envisions the grouping of sensory features (the local dimensions of stimuli) to be the outcome of a predictive process relying on prior experience (the global dimension of stimuli) to disambiguate possible configurations those elements could take. Contour integration, the linking of aligned but separate visual elements, is one example of perceptual grouping. Kanizsa-type illusory contour (IC) stimuli have been widely used to explore contour integration processing. Consisting of two conditions which differ only in the alignment of their inducing elements, one induces the experience of a shape apparently defined by a contour and the second does not. This contour has no counterpart in actual visual space - it is the visual system that fills-in the gap between inducing elements. A well-tested electrophysiological index associated with this process (the IC-effect) provided us with a metric of the visual system's contribution to contour integration. Using visually evoked potentials (VEP), we began by probing the limits of this metric to three manipulations of contour parameters previously shown to impact subjective experience of illusion strength. Next we detailed the developmental trajectory of contour integration processes over childhood and adolescence. Finally, because persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have demonstrated an altered balance of global and local processing, we hypothesized that contour integration may be atypical. We compared typical development to development in persons with ASDs to reveal possible mechanisms underlying this processing difference. Our manipulations resulted in no differences in the strength of the IC-effect in adults or children in either group. However, timing of the IC-effect was delayed in two instances: 1) peak latency was delayed by increasing the extent of contour to be filled-in relative to overall IC size and 2) onset latency was delayed in participants with ASDs relative to their neurotypical counterparts.
Influences of the Female Reproductive Cycle on Inflammatory Induced Pain Resonses
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Abstract Influences of the Female Reproductive Cycle on Inflammatory Induced Pain Responses by Nicole J. Amador Advisor: Professor Vanya Quiñones-Jenab Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated significant sex differences in the perception of inflammatory pain; females display higher nociceptive responses to inflammatory stimuli than male rats. Additionally, the complex endocrinological profile of females has been shown to impact their nociceptive responses. For example, estradiol reduces Phase II behavioral-nociceptive responses after formalin administration. However, little is known about the specific biological pathway(s) and/or mechanisms in which cycling endogenous female sex hormones affect inflammatory pain responses. Current literature has established that cyclooxygenases and prostanoids are major pro-inflammatory mediators directly linked to inflammatory responses. Additionally, glucocorticoids, (i.e. corticosterone) negatively regulate inflammatory induced COX-2, resulting in attenuation of inflammatory responses. The objective of this study was to further understand how fluctuations of endogenous female sex hormones alter inflammatory-induced responses by examining two physiological pathways (i.e. NO/COX-2 regulation of the prostanoid biosynthetic pathway and corticosterone regulation of the NO/COX pathway) which may in part be responsible for these effects. Endogenous peaks of estrogen and progesterone during proestrus, were shown to significantly attenuate behavioral responses after formalin administration. This attenuation of behavioral responding was accompanied by a significant increase in PGD2 serum levels. Cortiscosterone serum levels were unaffected after formalin administration suggesting that regulation of behavioral responses by endogenous hormones may be occurring through a pathway independent of the corticosterone biosynthetic pathway. COX-2 and nNOS levels in the spinal cord were not significantly affected by the estrous cycle, suggesting that regulation of behavioral responses by endogenous hormonal fluctuations may be occurring through a pathway independent of the NO/COX biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, although no estrous cycle effects were seen in paw withdrawal latency after carrageenan administration, we observed estrous cycle effects in the contralateral paw at baseline and one hour post-injection. Rats in proestrus showed a significant reduction in thermal- induced hyperalgesia as measured by increased paw withdrawal latency. Although no significant differences were seen in PGD2 serum levels, rats in estrus had significantly higher PGE2 serum levels after carrageenan administration. A significant decrease in PWL was observed in rats during estrus, a time of the lowest levels of fluctuating hormones. These results suggest that hormonal troughs during the cycle may affect inflammation through the PG biosynthetic pathway. Finally, during ages when animals are considered "middle aged" attenuation in inflammatory induced behavior was observed. This finding was accompanied by significant decreases in PGE2 and PGD2 levels and a significant increase in corticosterone serum levels. Taken together these results suggest a relationship between endogenous hormonal fluctuations, corticosterone release and PG activity. In summary, our results suggest that endogenous hormonal peaks and troughs effects on inflammation may be mediated through the regulation of the NO/COX-2/prostanoid biosynthetic pathway.
Object Relations, Internal Resources, and HIV/AIDS Risk: A Rorschach Study
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the quality of Rorschach scores of a population who self-reported sexual risk-taking behaviors that place them at increased risk for contracting HIV. It was hypothesized that this group would produce scores indicative of fewer internal resources available for impulse inhibition, specifically capacity for affect regulation and stress tolerance. It was further predicted that a measure of object relations would indicate that study participants would generally experience interpersonal interactions as imbalanced and possibly threatening. This group produced significantly lower scores with regard to affect regulation, but did not differ from the normed, non-clinical sample with regard to stress tolerance. Further, study participants produced scores in the healthy range on the measure of object relational development. The potential theoretical and clinical implications of this finding are discussed.
Electrophysiological markers of short-term visual adaptation: an examination across the schizophrenia spectrum
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Abstract ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF SHORT-TERM VISUAL ADAPTATION: AN EXAMINATION ACROSS THE SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM by Gizely N. Andrade Adviser: Professor John J. Foxe The experiments comprising this dissertation sought to contribute to the understanding of basic sensory processing in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and risk-liability. We leveraged the sensitivity of visual processing deficits along with widely reported sensory-gating deficits (in other modalities) to develop a new paradigm assaying short-term visual adaptation to repetitive stimuli. In the first experiment, adaptation properties of the visual system were characterized in neurotypical adults using a classic "paired adaptation paradigm" and a more taxing "block adaptation paradigm," using high-density EEG. In the second experiment, we deployed our new visual adaptation assay in a clinical population. We replicated classic early VEP amplitude attenuation and uncovered novel visual adaptation deficits in participants diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. We further tested the specificity of these findings by employing a somatosensory analog to the block adaptation paradigm utilizing vibrotactile stimulation of the median nerve. Differences in basic somatosensory function and adaptation were present in the clinical group although less apparent than in the visual system. In the third experiment, we examined whether altered visual adaptation could serve as a schizophrenia endophenotype. We utilized a shortened version of our visual adaptation paradigm (15mins, 32-channel electrode array) to characterize a larger sample of neurotypical adults who were also assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between high SPQ and less sensitive VEP adaptation. Overall the findings across these studies provide strong support for atypical visual adaptation in schizophrenia and suggest a potential role for altered visual adaptation as an electrophysiological schizophrenia endophenotype. Future studies employing pharmacological manipulations (e.g. administering nicotinic treatment or dopamine/glutamate/GABA agonists) and examining first degree relatives of patients may offer greater mechanistic insight into the processes underlying these observed phenomena.
DISSOCIATION AND POTENTIAL SPACE ON THE RORSCHACH AS PREDICTORS OF CONCURRENT PTSD AND SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE TREATMENT OUTCOMES
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Both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are ongoing public health crises. Dissociative experiences are considered core processes within both of these conditions (van der Kolk & van der Hart, 1989; Briere & Runtz, 1987; Schafer et al., 2010). Dissociation, which involves the compartmentalization of psychic experience, also exerts a significant influence over psychotherapies that aim to address both PTSD and SUD (Davidson & Foa, 1991; Spitzer, Barnow, Freyberger, & Grabe, 2007). However, dissociation is a wide concept that encompasses several perceptual, cognitive, affective, memory, and self-state processes (Bernstein & Putnam, 1986; Briere, Weathers, & Runtz, 2005). Through separate self-reports and projective measures that operationalize dissociation in distinct ways, this study investigated the quality and intensity of dissociative experiences in a sample of treatment-seeking individuals with comorbid PTSD and SUD. Additionally, this dissertation explored whether these measures of dissociation had significant relationships with treatment outcome. Results: Cross-sectional correlation analysis identified convergence between certain measures of dissociation, but not others. Within hierarchical regression analysis, specific subscales of dissociation demonstrated discrepant relationships with response-to-treatment variables. Altogether, this study further evidenced the multidimensional nature of dissociative processes and, subsequently, the value of multi-method assessment. In addition, separate types of dissociation appeared to differentially influence treatment, indicating a pathway through which to improve customization of treatment planning.
GUILTY STEREOTYPES: THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF RACE AND SUSPICION IN POLICE INTERVIEWS AND INTERROGATIONS
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Over 300 people have been exonerated by post conviction DNA testing, unequivocally proving their innocence. Nearly 70% of these post conviction DNA exonerees are members of minority groups, and approximately 69% of those convicted as a result of false confessions are racial/ethnic minorities (www.innocenceproject.org). To date, there is little research on the role of race in police interviews and interrogations. The present research had two goals. First, we examined Black and White participants' experiences during a mock crime interview. Second, using the interviews from Study 1, we evaluated the role suspect race plays in police officers' veracity judgments. Using a sample of community members, Black and White suspects in Study 1 reported similar levels of anxiety and exhibited similar rates of nonverbal behaviors commonly believed to be cues to deception. Similarly, Black and White suspects cooperated with the investigation at similar rates. Police officers in Study 2 exhibited chance levels of accuracy in their culpability decisions. However, police officers were significantly more likely to misjudge innocent Black suspects as guilty than innocent White suspects, while showing no difference in their accuracy rates for guilty suspects. Additionally, police officers judged Black suspects to be less cooperative and less forthcoming than White suspects. These results suggest that being questioned about a crime is stressful regardless of a suspect's race or ethnicity. They also suggest that innocent Black suspects are at a greater risk of being erroneously judged as guilty during police interviews and interrogations. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Increasing the Variability of Verbal Responding in Children and Adolescents with Autism Using a Conjunctive-Differential Reinforcement Schedule
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A procedure intended to teach variation in appropriate verbal responding to an antecedent stimulus was systematically manipulated for 5 individuals with autism. Four antecedent stimuli that include the clause, "else do you like to do" were presented in a varying order. Five responses that were appropriate to any of the antecedent stimuli were taught using a script-fading procedure. Percentage of varied verbal responses was studied under a conjunctive-differential reinforcement procedure using a multiple-baseline-across-subjects experimental design. Under a modified percentile requirement of the conjunctive schedule, responses were ranked according to their frequency of emission after every session and reinforcement was omitted for the 2 most frequent responses on the subsequent session. Under a lag-1 schedule requirement, reinforcement was omitted for consecutive occurrences of a given response within a given session. Data showed that the percentage of responses meeting the conjunctive schedule requirement increased with the systematic implementation of the schedule. A variability measure showed that responses were more stereotyped during baseline sessions in comparison to treatment sessions. Comparisons between the numbers of different statements emitted by individuals with autism versus those of their typically developing peers suggest that further research is necessary to increase responding to a typical level. Nevertheless, responses by teachers and parents to a social validity questionnaire suggest that the procedure could be applied in clinical and home settings and used to increase varied verbal responding.
Construction of a Forced-Choice Task for the Assessment of Factual Understanding and Feigning in Competency to Stand Trial Evaluations
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Psychologists are commonly called upon to conduct evaluations of a defendant's competency to stand trial. Under Dusky v. United States (1960) the legal criteria for competency to stand trial were enumerated and since then, a number of standardized assessment instruments that aim to assess those criteria have been developed, each with its own noted strengths and weaknesses. Although there are several instruments available to aid clinicians in these types of evaluations, only three include screens for feigning, and only one assesses for feigned cognitive impairment. In the current research an instrument was constructed to assess for competence related knowledge, while also incorporating several logical and statistical methods to assess for a feigned lack of knowledge of the legal system, including forced-choice testing, floor effect strategies, and completion time methodologies. The Factual Understanding Instrument (FUI) was constructed over five studies. Studies 1-3 involved instrument construction and included a review of the literature, a critical incidents phase with experts in the field, and item construction. Studies 4-5 focused on item evaluation and included an expert review of the constructed items and the pilot testing of the FUI in a simulation study with unimpaired college students. In study 5, multiple statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the FUI items and the various feigning detection strategies. In this sample reliability of the FUI was high. Items were relatively easy for honest responding participants, with many scoring near perfect. Feigning participants did not score as low as would be predicted by symptom validity testing, as responses varied from less than 50% correct to values seen in honest responders. Intelligence level, item difficulty, and response condition were found to be significant predictors in responses to FUI items. Completion time was not supported as a feigning detection method as hypothesized, however, alternative interpretations of the theory are offered. Further research on the FUI with a known-groups sample in forensic settings is needed to establish a floor value, to further evaluate item performance, and to improve the external validity of the current research. Research methodologies and future directions are offered.