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A Cross-National Comparison of Perceptions of Aging and Older Adults
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This study provides an overview of perceptions of aging and older people from five different countries. It focuses on demographic variables that have been shown to have an influence on how people perceive aging and older people. It explores the perceptions of aging and older adults in a cross-national context. The study conducts a quantitative analysis of a database consisting of survey responses from five countries conducted by Harris Interactive, Inc. for the International Longevity Center - USA in 2000. The five countries compared are: the Dominican Republic, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. There are four categories of attitudes: Perceptions of Aging and Older People; Perceptions of Life Satisfaction for Self; Perceptions of Quality of Life for Self; and Perception of Quality of Life for People Sixty-five and Older. Data from each of the five countries are analyzed separately and are then compared and analyzed. This study is a secondary analysis of a database consisting of responses from 7,161 people between 18 and 99 years of age (Dominican Republic N = 1,001; France N = 1,004; Japan N = 1,118; United Kingdom N = 990; United States N = 3,048). The independent variables are: age, gender, marital status, and income levels. The dependent variables are the four attitude domains of: Perceptions of Aging and Older People; Perceptions of Life Satisfaction for Self; Perceptions of Quality of Life for Self; and Perception of Quality of Life for People Sixty-five and Older. Each country is separately analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance, Chi-Square, or Independent T-Tests. The results of the analysis are then compared with the other countries and discussed. This study demonstrates that perceptions of aging and older adults differ when viewed through the cultural lenses of various countries.
Experiences with Infant Mortality as Reported by Middle Class Black American Women: In Their Own Words
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The issue of Black Infant Mortality (BIM) appears to mirror the findings of disparities in poor health care and poor medical outcomes for minorities in the United States. The BIM rate of (13.3) is almost twice for all women (6.7) and more than twice the rate for white women (5.6). The BIM disparity holds even when variables such as income, education, and marital status are similar. This study explored the lived experience of infant loss through in-depth interviews with eight black-American middle-class women. It aimed to understand the contributing factors present among middle class black women, which could help in understanding the adverse birth outcomes for the target group studied. All of the women revealed experiences with stress, from the time of pre-conception and throughout the entire pregnancy, although they gave little recognition to the negative affects of such stress on their medical health or the health of their unborn fetus. Coping mechanisms linked to a racial history, influenced the concept of self-expectation and responses to stress. The presence of medical markers, a prominent theme, should be useful in the prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes, if addressed. The role of race was implicated in quality of care issues, imbedded in medical views influenced by the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes for black women. The lack of timely medical tests to rule out the presence of a medical diagnosis was a probable consequence of such views. In this study, an unexpected finding was that the majority of the fathers had a family history of premature births and infant loss.
The relationship between social support and health-related quality of life among Korean American nursing home residents
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This descriptive and exploratory mixed-method study examined the relationship between social support and health-related quality of life among Korean American nursing home residents. It examined the social support networks of the Korean American nursing home residents, the nature of their interpersonal transactions, and the association between social support and quality of life indicators. A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face interviews (using the social support questionnaire) and data extraction from an existing dataset (Minimum Data Set-MDS) on a sample of 73 cognitively intact Korean American nursing home residents were utilized to examine and understand the relationship between social support and health-related quality of life indicators. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses revealed that social support had main and interactive effects on health-related quality of life indicators. In the bivariate analysis, the appraisal support variable was significantly associated with ADL impairments, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health. In addition, satisfaction with support person was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Other social support variables, including negative behaviors (being hurt or being upset), perceptions of giving, and perceptions of support were significantly associated with self-rated health among Korean American nursing home residents. After controlling for the covariates, four social support variables were found to be predictive of depressive symptoms: negative behaviors; perceptions of control; frequency interacting with negative behaviors; and negative behaviors interacting with perceptions of control. In addition, perceptions of control and negative behaviors were found to be predictive of negative self-rated health among Korean American nursing home residents. These findings demonstrate the most important sources and types of social support for Korean American nursing home residents and suggest interventions that may help facilitate their quality of life in a nursing home setting. Implications for social work practice and future directions for research are also discussed.
The Experience of Clinician-Litigators at Impartial Hearings: An Exploratory Phenomenological Study with Social Policy Implications
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This exploratory study investigated the experiences of social workers, psychologists, and educators serving as clinician-litgators representing the the local education agency at impartial hearings. The role of the clinician-litigator provides a window into the conflict between the principles of ethical advocacy that informs the work of the helping professions and the principles of traditional adversary advocacy that guides the work of the legal profession, because it requires bridging these two advocacy traditions. The fifteen clilnician-litigators interviwed for this study acquired and applied legal skills in theier work as district representatives at impartial hearings but also retained their traditional professional orientations toward understanding and serving the needs of students. A phenomenological, grounded-theory approach to studying the experiences of the clinican-litigators facilitated reflection on their experiences and observations of the hearing process, which illuminated the ethical contradictions they encountered. Exploring the experiences of the clinician-litigators yielded rich data on their individual performance of a heretofore uninvestigated role. It also highlighted several societal issues concerning the provision of services to special education students. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was intended to promote the integration of disabled students into the educational mainstream. It specified the use of impartial hearings as a mechanism of dispute resolution between parents and the local education agency with the two parties on an equal footing. Over the past two decades, impartial hearings have been increasingly used by parents to seek private school tuition, fostering a form of segregation directly opposed to the intent of the Act. The observations and experiences of the clinician-litigators revealed how this mechanism of dispute resolution increased conflict between parents and the local education agency. It undermined the efforts of educational professionals to serve the best interests of students. Further, highlighted the tension between the forces in society that would utilize the principles of distributive justice to promote integration and create equality of opportunity and those that would promote privitization of public services and institutionalize segregation based on socioeconomic status.
THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF RACIAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY AMONG WOMEN OF COLOR FROM MIXED ANCESTRY: PSYCHOLOGICAL FREEDOMS AND SOCIOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS
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In the context of the 21st century, when an increasing number of people cannot be classified by an archaic system based on race, an awareness of the complexities of ethnic and racial identity is more important than ever. This study assists in the development of a critical understanding of the complexity of racial and ethnic identity by exploring the construction of racial and ethnic identity among women of color from mixed ancestry. These women are the offspring of parents from multiple racial and ethnic backgrounds. As a result, their identities--both internally and externally constructed--belie traditional racial and ethnic categories. This population faces unique struggles, as identified in the empirical literature and supported by the data analysis. Women of color from mixed heritages: have been assigned monolithic labels based primarily on their physical appearance; may feel pressured to adopt a single and predetermined ethnic or racial label; and are often researched as one ethnic or racial group. Furthermore, scholars agree that institutional racism has been a constricting force in the construction of identity and identification for ethnic groups of color in the United States. This study is important because women of color are not always comfortable with the ascribed identity, particularly when it is based on faulty characterizations and when their ethnicity is overlooked. Additionally, this study brings insight to the psychological and social impact of socially constructed identifications. This study regards race and ethnicity as social constructions, defined by human beings and given meaning in the context of family, community, and society. As such, women of color from mixed ancestry find themselves in the middle of the psychological freedoms and sociological constraints of identity construction within the dominant society. As a result, they develop management techniques for integrating components of self and for managing the freedoms and constraints in social constructions of race and ethnicity. This is a subject of pivotal importance to multiple fields of inquiry as well as one having significant educational, clinical, and programmatic implications. Among the implications for social work practice and pedagogy are the need for critical reflection, increased awareness, and cultural diversity.
Filipino Women Domestics on an International Economic Mission: A Multi Method, Data-Mining Study
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Abstract FILIPINO WOMEN DOMESTICS ON AN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC MISSION: A MULTI METHOD, DATA-MINING STUDY By Sanjana Ragudaran Adviser: Irwin Epstein This dissertation explored factors contributing towards intentions of return migration of female Filipino domestic workers. Based on available data, I also addressed the reason for migration, individuals' domestic work experiences in the United States and their connection to the homeland during their absence. This was a multi methods study with a combination of Clinical Data Mining and Secondary Analysis in which the data was made available by The Urban Justice Center and Damayan Migrant Workers Association. This study drew from 182 self-administered survey respondents, 22 individual interviews and 4 focus groups of female Filipino domestic workers. In the research, convenience, snowball and purposeful sampling as well as quantitative and qualitative analysis were employed. Findings from the survey data revealed that over half (N=110, 63.9%) of these women migrated primarily for financial reasons, to support their families. Majority (N=132, 74.6%) entered the United States with a Tourist Visa and many (N=96, 61.5%) reported having no legal status. Their lives in the United States have been challenging as domestic work is unregulated and therefore, women had negative experiences. In addition to an unfulfilling job, women maintained minimalist lives and shared accommodation. By doing so, 93 (65%) remitted 30% or more of their income. During their time away from home, women also spoke of the negative impact their absence has had on themselves and their loved ones. When discussing return intentions, 99 (59.6%) women reported wanting to return. Seventeen of twenty-two (77.3%) individual interviewees and 29 (93.5%) Focus Group participants indicated that they had return intentions. Due to the multi-methods nature of this study, I did not draw my conclusions solely from the quantitative data. The qualitative data revealed that although they seemed to initially be "target" migrants, despite their return intentions many continued to work as domestic workers solely because there was a continuing need to support their families financially. The "dream" of return at retirement was echoed in qualitative data where women spoke regretfully about working until they could work no more. I conclude this study with a discussion on policy, service and future research implications.
Implicit Bias about Disabilities: How it Exist for Forensic Interviewers and Could It Affect Child Credibility Decisions in Child Abuse Investigations: An Exploratory Study
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Abstract IMPLICIT BIAS ABOUT DISABILTIES: DOES IT EXIST FOR FORENSIC INTERVIEWERS AND COULD IT AFFECT CHILD CREDIBILITY IN CHILD ABUSE EVALUATIONS By Elizabeth Reiman Advisor: Profession Gary Mallon This research project considered two questions regarding forensic interviewers: Do forensic interviewers hold implicit biases toward people with disabilities? If so, could this influence whether a forensic interviewer finds a child with a disability believable? To examine these questions, a quantitative exploratory study was conducted. Using an online survey, participants were randomly assigned to read a scenario about a child's disclosure of sexual abuse (children with and without a disability), and respond to questions about the believability of the child. Participants then completed an adapted version of the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test (DA-IAT). The results yielded four significant findings. First, implicit bias about disabilities does exist in the forensic interviewer population. The results suggest that bias about disabilities exists on a continuum (High Bias, Low Bias and No Bias) and not in a binary representation as previously measured by other authors. Second, of all the interviewer characteristics that might predict representation in the three bias groups, only professional discipline was significant. The third conclusion demonstrated that, the interviewer attributes showed a significant relationship to credibility but none of the child characteristics were associated. The fourth finding was that the identification of a disability prior to the interview could affect the interviewer's bias score. The results raise the question of how interviewer's implicit bias about disabilities can change the course of an interview. Using this information as a starting point, further research on this topic is critical to forensic interview best practice. The training of these specialized practitioners needs to move beyond simply providing basic information about disabilities and begin to explore interviewers' beliefs, attitudes and values about people with disabilities.
Exploring Pathways to Independence A Data Mining Study To Research Predictors of Long-Term Stay Among Homeless Men In The New York City Family Shelter System
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This research used a clinical data mining study to examine long-term stays of 811 homeless men in the New York City family shelter system. The overall goal of the project was to examine what predictors influenced long-term stay defined as more than 291 days in shelter. Survival analysis was used to measure how long it took for men to discharge from shelter. Cox regresion analysis was used to assess whether predictor variables influenced length of stay of men in the sample. Data was collected from administrative records. There were several key findings. Discharge patterns among the men slowed after 400 days in shelter. Exit disposition, age and family size were among the best predictors of long-term stay. Old men took longer time to discharge from shelter as compared to young men in the sample. Homeless men in large families also took longer to discharge from shelter as compared to men in small families. Efforts should be made to accomodate the service needs of large families. These families, identified at intake, need more support than others in finding housing, completing applications for housing, and minimizing barriers to relocation from shelter.
Looking back: Young adult women reflect on perceptions of their mothers' experiences with domestic violence
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Abstract LOOKING BACK: YOUNG ADULT WOMEN REFLECT ON PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES WITH DOMESTIC VIOLENCE By Julie Ross Adviser: Professor Manny J. Gonzalez This qualitative study examined the lives of emerging adult women who were exposed to domestic violence during childhood or adolescence within their families of origin. The primary aim of the study was to describe the ways in which young women perceive and make sense of the domestic violence that their mothers have experienced. At this time it is not clearly understood how or why some young women develop a healthy resistance to the effects of childhood exposure to domestic violence, while others do not. The research sought to contribute to an understanding of developmental outcomes of exposure to domestic violence, with an emphasis on resiliency. Fifteen emerging adult women between the ages of 18 and 25 participated in in-depth interviews to illuminate the ways in which they created meaning for themselves of the physical and sexual violence or emotional abuse that their mothers experienced or were experiencing presently. Recruited from a domestic violence shelter and college campuses, participants were the daughters of racially, ethnically and culturally diverse parents and for the large majority, immigration to the United States was an important though unanticipated phenomenon. Through the use of life maps, the study explored important turning points in the women's lives, their resources for coping with childhood and adolescent adversity, their strengths and accomplishments, their losses and their abilities to form relationships as young adults, as well as their present psychosocial functioning. The findings indicated that the young women coped with an array of adverse environmental stressors that included homelessness, poverty, parental substance abuse, child maltreatment and actual abandonment, in addition to their exposure to domestic violence. Although memories of their mothers' abuse evoke strong emotions that remain in the forefront of their consciousness, the young women showed a drive toward health, an internal quest not to be a victim and to seek mastery. Factors that contributed to their resiliency included optimism, withstanding and repudiation of the violence, acceptance of one's parents' limitations, having faith in one's decision making and taking ownership of their experiences. Academic success, extracurricular activities, writing and creative pursuits, and the ability to make strong interpersonal connections outside their immediate families were emotionally sustaining and adaptive. Despite growing up in atmospheres of terror and vigilance, the women persevered through challenging moments and emerged with clear and compelling voices. Many were consumed at an early age with adult responsibilities that may have contributed to their competency. However, liability remains and during emerging adulthood, a large number of the women were struggling with conflicts about and avoidance of intimate relationships and the emotional fallout within their families. A startling finding was that few women had benefitted from treatment during childhood or adolescence in spite of attempts to connect with therapists in the past. Yet, as emerging adult women, they were focused on healing and for some, the narratives they created through the life map process signified a first disclosure of their troubles. In light of the women's need to have their stories listened to, implications for social work intervention that uses a long-term relational model are discussed, at a time when the profession embraces evidence-based treatment models.
PREPARATION FOR PRACTICE: A SURVEY OF SOCIAL WORKERS' PERCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THEIR GRADUATE CURRICULUM FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION/MEDIATION PRACTICE
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This study investigated the perceptions of social work mediators about the effectiveness of their graduate curriculum for conflict resolution/mediation practice. The study is based on a sample of 78 social work mediators from various regions in the United States. The respondents completed a questionnaire on curricula items, education, training and professional practice. The median age of participants was 46.0. The research questions related to gaps in the curriculum and knowledge, skills, and abilities required for practicing conflict resolution/mediation; additional training/education required to achieve competency; and whether the tasks of conflict resolution/mediation are viewed as generalist social work tasks or specialist conflict resolution tasks. Findings revealed that upon completion of their graduate social work education, the majority of the participants (89.7%, n=69) did not feel they were prepared to practice conflict resolution/mediation without additional training. Participants completed basic mediation training in a variety of settings and continued training in advanced specialty areas. Advanced training specializations reflect similar areas of social work practice: divorce, child custody, family, children and youth, education/school, workplace and forensics. The competency scale addressed the knowledge/skills/abilities issue of generalist vs. specialist. An unexpected finding was that 32 of 38 listed competencies, at some level, were thought to be generic skills for all social workers for a total of 86%. Correlation data revealed no relationships between a number of the socio-demographic variables and the preparation for conflict resolution/mediation practice. However, some relationships were found with specific curricula and competency areas. To conclude, the study revealed that social workers perceptions' of their graduate school curriculum did not prepare them for conflict resolution/mediation practice. Although they received the foundation for conflict resolution/mediation practice in their social work program, they gained the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities through a variety of conflict resolution/mediation training programs over a period of time. Social work mediators selected a large number of competencies that are identified as more conflict resolution/mediation specific as skills required for generalist social workers. Therefore, additional research is necessary to understand if this is a professional bias of social work mediators or consistent with the perceptions of a generalist social worker.