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Gold and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Coated Peptide Nanotubes Fabrication and Their Electrical Transport Properties Study
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There is a growing interest in attempts in using biomolecular as the 1D nanotube templates to grow inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) in controlled morphology and structure. One of the research motivations for this combination is to take advantage of the catalytic activity for the room-temperature material growth and the ability of self-assembly into controlled structures on a large scale. One approach to fabricate such nanotube is by using a glycine-based peptide nanotube as template, and on template sidewall immobilizing biomineralizing peptide, which can selectively bind to the target metal/semiconductor precursor and mediate the formation of the inorganic material on templates incorporating these peptides. By optimizing the experiment conditions, we successfully fabricated high yield of nanotubes with full coverage of high-density monodispersed Au and ZnO NPs coating. Using drop casting technique, we built electronic device with these nanotubes and found very interesting electrical transport properties: the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristic of Au NPs nanotube; and the negative differential resistance property (current decreases with increasing bias voltage) of ZnO NPs coated nanotube. These results are of great impact on the future development of bio-nanoelectronic devices. Besides, a new biomimetic approach for one-pod synthesis of ZnO nanotube at neutral pH and room temperature is introduced; by self-assembling peptides which possess the catalytic mineralization function for the specific oxide metal, ZnO nanotube can be grown as the peptides are simultaneously assembled into a rod structure and template ZnO growth in gels formed by the peptides and Zn precursors. Traditionally, biomineralizing peptides are coated on 1D templates and then grow ZnO at room temperature, however this new method allows one to grow ZnO nanotubes in one step without using 1D templates since the Zn-mineralizing peptide itself can be assembled into the 1D structure.
The Actor and the Playwright: Adaptation on the Early Eighteenth-Century, English Stage
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Abstract The Actor and the Playwright: Play Adaptation on the Early Eighteenth-Century, English Stage By Ellen Anthony-Moore Advisor: Prof. Judith Milhous This dissertation examines the ways in which classical, neoclassical and Renaissance plays were adapted and staged on the early eighteenth-century, London stage. The plays that became box office successes were generally the ones that best displayed the talents and attributes of popular performers. By understanding the lives and careers of the greatest actors of this generation, and their role in the commercial theatre, we can better understand why the now canonized plays of ancient Greece, France, or the Elizabethan period were modified in ways that most modern scholars find puzzling. By the beginning of the eighteenth century in England, actors and actresses were becoming public personalities in an unprecedented way. From the time of Thomas Betterton's death in 1709, to the end of the triumvirate management of Drury Lane by Colley Cibber, Robert Wilks and Barton Booth in 1727, there were a handful of actors who can lay claim to being the most well known and respected performers of this generation. In chapter one, I outline what is known about eighteenth-century acting methods and techniques as well as the lines of certain key actors. Chapters two and three explore the genres of tragedy and historical tragedy, emphasizing the importance of the celebrity actress and the recent vogue for she-tragedy. Chapter four is centrally concerned with trends in comedy and farce and the preoccupation with the misadventures of young rakes, fops, cheats and the like. This dissertation ultimately concludes that by looking at the way contemporary authors adapted the most prominent playwrights of previous generations, we can better understand the theatre of the eighteenth-century. Ultimately, the process of play adaptation was one that was highly influenced by the demands of a commercial, celebrity centered theatre rather than by literary ideals or political ideology.
Forms of Generic Common Knowledge
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In multi-agent epistemic logics, common knowledge has been a central consideration of study. A generic common knowledge (G.C.K.) system is one that yields iterated knowledge I(φ): ‘any agent knows that any agent knows that any agent knows…φ’ for any number of iterations. Generic common knowledge yields iterated knowledge, G.C.K.(φ)→I(φ), but is not necessarily logically equivalent to it. This contrasts with the most prevalent formulation of common knowledge C as equivalent to iterated knowledge. A spectrum of systems may satisfy the G.C.K. condition, of which C is just one. It has been shown that in the usual epistemic scenarios, G.C.K. can replace conventional common knowledge and Artemov has noted that such standard sources of common knowledge as public announcements of atomic sentences generally yield G.C.K. rather than C.
In this dissertation we study mathematical properties of generic common knowledge and compare them to the traditional common knowledge notion. In particular, we contrast the modal G.C.K. logics of McCarthy (e.g. M4) and Artemov (e.g. S4nJ) with C-systems (e.g. S4nC) and present a joint C/G.C.K. implicit knowledge logic S4nCJ as a conservative extension of both. We show that in standard epistemic scenarios in which common knowledge of certain premises is assumed, whose conclusion does not concern common knowledge (such as Muddy Children, Wise Men, Unfaithful Wives, etc.), a lighter G.C.K. can be used instead of the traditional, more complicated, common knowledge. We then present the first fully explicit G.C.K. system LPn(LP). This justification logic realizes the corresponding modal system S4nJ so that G.C.K., along with individual knowledge modalities, can always be made explicit.
The Foundations of American Regional Theatre
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Since the early 1960s, regional theatre has grown into one of the major sectors of contemporary American theatre culture. Why have so many regional theatres existed for years? Why have they attracted such a large audience? Partially through a survey of the regional theatre sector as a whole, and mainly through case studies of the four individual theatres, this study aims to answer these questions. American regional theatres are unique in that they offer more than the artistic merit and entertainment value of their productions. This study proposes the hypothesis that, the very foundations of American regional theatres lie not in their productions' artistic or entertainment values, but in their contributions to their communities. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the development of the regional theatre sector as well as the basic terminology and the scope of the field. Chapter 2 examines the regional theatres' evolving relationship with Broadway from the early 1960s through the 1980s. Chapters 3 and 4 examine four regional theatres, Arena Stage, the Guthrie Theater, the Seattle Repertory Theatre, and the Milwaukee Repertory Theater, to look into regional theatres' relationship with the communities in which they are located. The case studies demonstrates that, once expected to pay their own way through the box office revenues alone, these theatres switched to local, non-governmental sources to supplement their box office revenues and/or to make up for the loss of the foundation grants by the early 1970s. Since then, they have been successfully obtaining annual contributions from local donors by nurturing a shared sense of ownership of the theatres within the communities. Chapter 5 summarizes the research findings and revisits the hypothesis proposed in Chapter 1. The study concludes that regional theatres have been able to secure their long-term continuation within their communities and continue to attract large audiences only because they have assumed the position of public theatres responsive to communities at large for the first time on a large scale in the history of American theatre.
Electrodynamics of Nearly Ferroelectric Superconductors in the local London and non-local Pippard limits
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In this work, electrodynamics of a Nearly Ferroelectric Superconduct- ing (NFE-SC) material in local London limit and nonlocal Pippard limit is reported. NFE-SC materials exhibit superconductivity and are in a nearly- ferroelectric state. One example of such materials is 'n' or 'p' doped $SrTiO_3$ . The structure of a single vortex in an NFE-SC thin film is explored. Taking $n-SrTiO_3$ as our sample of choice, the frequency dependent magnetic field and current within the sample are calculated. The expulsion of the vortex from the sample at resonances is observed. The interaction between two vortices due to the presence of high background dielectric is explored. The effect of finite thickness on the vortex structure is explored for an NFE-SC film. With increase in film thickness, the resonances become sharper and as a result the system undergoes oscillatory transition between ferroelectric, superconducting and Meissner-like states. Nonlocal effects in the NFE-SC thin film are explored in the Pippard limit. Specular Reflection and Random scattering are studied. Analytical as well as numerical methods are used to investigate the nature of the material and solve for the current and magnetic field within the sample. The current is found to be non-zero within the sample. The material properties can be manipulated to enhance or expel the current from within the sample with the change in frequency. The material shows complex transitions between Type-I, Type-II superconducting as well as Dielectric states. Numerical codes developed for the solution of the integro-differential equations are given.
GUILTY STEREOTYPES: THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF RACE AND SUSPICION IN POLICE INTERVIEWS AND INTERROGATIONS
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Over 300 people have been exonerated by post conviction DNA testing, unequivocally proving their innocence. Nearly 70% of these post conviction DNA exonerees are members of minority groups, and approximately 69% of those convicted as a result of false confessions are racial/ethnic minorities (www.innocenceproject.org). To date, there is little research on the role of race in police interviews and interrogations. The present research had two goals. First, we examined Black and White participants' experiences during a mock crime interview. Second, using the interviews from Study 1, we evaluated the role suspect race plays in police officers' veracity judgments. Using a sample of community members, Black and White suspects in Study 1 reported similar levels of anxiety and exhibited similar rates of nonverbal behaviors commonly believed to be cues to deception. Similarly, Black and White suspects cooperated with the investigation at similar rates. Police officers in Study 2 exhibited chance levels of accuracy in their culpability decisions. However, police officers were significantly more likely to misjudge innocent Black suspects as guilty than innocent White suspects, while showing no difference in their accuracy rates for guilty suspects. Additionally, police officers judged Black suspects to be less cooperative and less forthcoming than White suspects. These results suggest that being questioned about a crime is stressful regardless of a suspect's race or ethnicity. They also suggest that innocent Black suspects are at a greater risk of being erroneously judged as guilty during police interviews and interrogations. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Adonis' Poetics of Vision and Modernity
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Middle Eastern Studies
The Syrian poet and cultural critic Ali Ahmad Said (1930 -) (Adonis) is one of the most influential Arab poets of the 20th century. His poetry represents a radical rupture with what was established before. Adonis’ poetry is associated with innovation and revolution, and his language is characterized by mysticism and hermeticism. While living in Beirut, he co-founded the influential literary journal Shi'r (1956-63) with the Lebanese poet Yusuf al-Khal (1917-1987), and a few years later he founded his own journal, Mawaqif (1968-1998). Both journals served as a prominent literary platform for cultural modernity and radical criticism of the Arab heritage and tradition. Adonis’ literary and theoretical oeuvres have been the subject of a number of discussions and debates within the Arab intellectual circle and beyond. This paper, is chiefly concerned with Adonis’ notion of the poetic vision that expresses itself in two dimensions, as a matter of form and content. The formal expression of vision is artistic, to “make it new,” as Ezra Pound said: poetry must take new forms and use new techniques to reflect the now-ness of vision; its ability to present the world as it is right now. When a poet is being visionary, he or she cannot use old forms and motifs, because this would be to substitute the lived experience of the poet for purely literary conventions. The notion of vision that manifests itself as a poetic content is essentially concerned with the poet’s insight and not his technique. Such poetic insight finds resonance in Sufist and Surrealist pronouncements; it seeks meaning in other metaphysical realities. Hence, the content of vision is the mystical, the otherworldly. This is more like William Blake’s view of vision: poetry must describe the truth of everything that evades and escapes the senses. A poet who is visionary cannot simply write poems about everyday life, because the poet sees more than the everyday person. I suggest that these two dimensions are potentially in tension. They are not, exactly, saying the same thing. However, I attempt to investigate how Adonis adapts and develops this interesting marriage of the two kinds of vision in his poetics.
Designing Social Production Models to Support Producer-Consumer Collaboration and Innovation in Digital Social Spaces
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The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen dramatic advances in Internet technologies. Digital social spaces have emerged as popular Internet applications that are radically changing how firms and consumers of digital content interact. In the first chapter "Research Agenda" I introduce my research and the context within which it is developed. In the second chapter "Digital Consumer Networks and Producer-Consumer Collaboration: Innovation and Product Development in the Video Game Industry", I show how producers may partially open proprietary content to consumers to allow them to co-create derivative products. By re-appropriating these derivatives, the firms are successfully outsourcing parts of their design and development process to consumer networks. Applying economic analysis, I explore the potential benefits and risks of co-creation and derive the optimal combination of copyright enforcement and consumer compensation levels. In the third chapter "Firms and Innovative Digital Consumer Networks: An Analysis of Social Network Structure and Innovation Selection Mechanism", I explore how word of mouth effects are an important indicator of the popularity and economic potential of newly available digital goods. I present three selection mechanisms that firms can employ in order to identify user-generated product innovations that are fit for re-appropriation. The first is based on direct peer-review, the second uses a simple evolutionary game theoretic model, and the third proposes a stochastic epidemiological innovation diffusion model. In the fourth chapter "The Evolution of Innovation in Digital Social Spaces through Mutation, Natural Selection and Reuse of Novel Synthetic Routines", I examine the particular question of how innovations diffuse across digital social space designs and affect change on the industry level. I apply evolutionary theory as a theoretical lens and develop a stochastic process model that allows studying the factors that determine which innovations survive in the market and which do not. Analytical analysis of the proposed process model enables the examination of how organizational strategies affect industry trends and the determination of the conditions under which standardization in the industry is achieved. In the fifth chapter "Strategic Implications" I discuss the risks faced by firms in the digital social space industry that are adopting co-creation approaches. My research suggests that effective management of the collaboration between producers and consumers is key for sustainable co-creation business models. I conclude with the sixth chapter and present directions for future research.
Reframing the Narrative of Dada in New York, 1910-1926
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New York Dada has historically been positioned as incompatible or antithetical to American modernism. This dissertation argues that the Dada spirit in New York not only rejected European conventions of high art, but did so with the nationalistic desire to develop a modern and independent American idiom through the influence of anarchism and vernacular culture. This study traces the influence of anarchism in New York on Alfred Stieglitz, his influential gallery, "291," and his publication, Camera Work, as well as larger anarchistic networks during the early 1910s. In this atmosphere of iconoclastic experimentation, vernacular culture emerged as an alternative strategy to critique the definitions and institutions of fine art. Whereas most studies of New York Dada focus on the work of Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, and Man Ray, this study reconstructs the cultural conditions in which they worked. The year 1915 becomes a watershed moment, not simply for the arrival of Duchamp and Picabia, but for the publication of Van Wyck Brooks's cultural critique, America's Coming-of-Age. This text blamed the dichotomy between the highbrow and lowbrow for the lack of a truly American cultural idiom. I argue that the main character of New York Dada - its enthusiastic adoption of the subjects, styles, and strategies of vernacular culture - attempts to bridge that divide. The vernacular came to represent a new standard of American identity, a flexible definition that could allow an amateurish aesthetic to coexist with industrial imagery. This study broadens the scope of New York Dada production to include the work of artists and critics who collaborated in this Dada spirit, but have historically been separated from the Dada movement. In this larger context, canonical works of Dada, especially periodicals such as The Ridgefield Gazook (1915), The Blind Man (1917), and New York Dada (1921) will be reconsidered.
The Transnational Body in American Literature, 1798-1846
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Post-revolutionary American authors, living under a relatively stable government and economy, turned their attention simultaneously inward and outward: inward to understand the strange workings of the human body, and outward to comprehend and control new territory. Focusing on the period between the Quasi-War with France and the U.S. War with Mexico, conflicts in which the United States asserted its international power, I identify several novels that dramatize the outward gaze toward new territory through an inward gaze toward the body. The Transnational Body puts embodiment into conversation with early American politics, not only because the body is a conventional symbol for the political sphere, but also because early U.S. policies, both domestic and international, were predicated on notions of race and sex, distinctions thought to be identifiable on the body. Flouting the expectation that embodiment is largely a personal, highly localized matter, this dissertation seeks a new route through early American literature by interrogating what extraordinary fictional bodies express about early U.S. politics, particularly the politics of expansion and borders. In each novel I examine, the author makes a spectacle of embodiment by representing unusual bodily events, such as dismemberment, cannibalism, metempsychosis, and mesmerism, that serve as indices of the young United States' uncertainty about its position in the world. By attending to the embodied domestic and international politics within each novel, I conclude first that anxieties about democracy, race, national stability, and expansion pervade early U.S. literature. Moreover, I argue that these novels help us trace a trajectory through the first half of the nineteenth century. I discern a shift from anxiety about the leveling effects of democracy in the late eighteenth century, through tentative experimentation with expansionism in the early nineteenth century, to anxieties about secession and faction that undergirded the rising nationalistic sentiments of the 1820s, ultimately to uncertainty about the imperialistic results of that nationalism. Throughout this trajectory, a constant remains: early U.S. thinking about politics, and especially about the relationship between domestic and international spheres, is intertwined with the body. The Transnational Body examines these imbrications between politics and the body.