Alumni Dissertations

 

Alumni Dissertations

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  • Public Market to La Marqueta: Shaping Spaces and Subjects of Food Distribution in New York City, 1930-2012

    Author:
    Anne Babette Audant
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Earth & Environmental Sciences
    Advisor:
    Setha Low
    Abstract:

    From Public Market to La Marqueta: Shaping Spaces and Subjects of Food Distribution in New York City, 1930 to 2012 by Anne Babette Audant Advisor: Setha M. Low Public markets are definitive parts of the urban landscape. Policies shaping municipal food provisioning, including public markets, produce and reproduce differentiated subjects and unevenly developed spaces. Social science has not paid sustained attention to public food markets; this research contributes to a fragmented and multi-perspective body of work that demonstrates the many ways in which markets intersect with urban processes. I look at the geographic distribution of food in and through New York City's public markets from 1930 to the present by mapping intersections of politics, citizens, consumers, social class, gender, ethnicity, race, government, capital, and the retailing landscape. Tracing these processes over more than a century, this study demonstrates that food distribution is a dynamic and highly contested aspect of urban life, underscoring a deep if sometimes under-articulated recognition of the work done by the flow of food through city streets. Focused on New York City's public markets, particularly the enclosed retail markets built in the late 1930s and early 1940s to contain New York City's pushcarts and street peddlers, this study explores how the immigrant working classes became the objects of municipal food policy. Food habits became a means through which to Americanize - and civilize - the masses. Along with their bodies, their food landscapes became the targets of state intervention. Working class neighborhoods were - and are - vulnerable to state interventions that too often further alienate already disempowered populations. Food policy has the potential to advance social justice. In New York City, we are witnessing the emergence of a new municipal food policy, which, if implemented, will be the first comprehensive policy to be proposed since the Progressive Era. Aimed at reducing inequities and improving public health, and integrated with broad goals of environmental and economic sustainability, the proposals on the table point in promising directions.

  • INTERPERSONAL RHYTHMS DISRUPTED BY A HISTORY OF TRAUMA: AN IN-DEPTH CASE STUDY OF ANALYTICAL MUSIC THERAPY

    Author:
    Tanja Auf der Heyde
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Psychology
    Advisor:
    Steven Tuber
    Abstract:

    Abstract INTERPERSONAL RHYTHMS DISRUPTED BY A HISTORY OF TRAUMA: AN IN-DEPTH CASE STUDY OF ANALYTICAL MUSIC THERAPY by Tanja Maud Christine Auf der Heyde Advisor: Steven Tuber, Ph.D. This dissertation project is a phenomenological study of interpersonal rhythms within the music therapy treatment of a client with a history of cumulative trauma. An attempt was made to explore whether and how rhythmic interactions within musical improvisations facilitate the repair of ruptures in such rhythms. Towards this aim, the rhythmic interactions between the two participants were analyzed to find evidence for bi-directional rhythmic co-regulation and loose mid-range coordination. Furthermore, this study tracked shifts in the client's mental state by applying a moment-to-moment analysis of the music with four Improvisation Assessment Profiles (IAPs). It was found that musical improvisation allows for ample opportunities for bi-directional co-regulation and loose mid-range coordination. Most of the mental state ratings were within the "optimal arousal state," suggesting that music does, in fact, facilitate regulation on both intrapsychic and interpersonal levels. However, this study also uncovered the importance of spontaneous and planned disruptions in rhythmic interaction, which find their musical expression in syncopations, polyrhythms, and a-rhythmic sections. These experiences are deeply embedded in the body. Thus, they provide the opportunity not only for reconnecting with one's own rhythms, and for reconstructing a disrupted expectation system within an improvisation, but also for finding agency in the playful thwarting of expectations, and for exploring the continuum of separation and connectedness in a musical relationship. In this sense, music acts as a transitional phenomenon, creating an intermediate space between inner and outer worlds. In this "third" area of experiencing, both participants align with patterns that go beyond the sum of their contributions; when this state of flow is reached, one can feel that one is played by the music as much as one is playing it. The results of this study indicate that a close rhythmic analysis of improvised interactions can help music therapists to assess the client's level of trauma as well as to tailor interventions to move them out of the repetitious rhythms of hyper- and hypoarousal. For verbal psychotherapists and psychoanalysts, the implication is that rhythmically aware, embodied listening can open up new dimensions of transference and countertransference phenomena. To this end, clinicians should pay special attention to rhythmic shifts in affect, speech, and bodily gestures.

  • The Rat Bastard Protective Association: Bruce Conner and His San Francisco Cohort, 1958-1968

    Author:
    Anastasia Aukeman
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Art History
    Advisor:
    Anna Chave
    Abstract:

    This dissertation is a theoretical and historical account of the art-making activities of the Rat Bastard Protective Association, a small, close-knit community living and working in mid-century San Francisco. Assemblage was a common denominator within the group, which included Wallace Berman, Joan Brown, Bruce Conner, Jay DeFeo, Wally Hedrick, and Manuel Neri, along with other, less constant members. The first book-length study devoted to the Rat Bastards, this project explores the political, social, and aesthetic concerns in their assemblages. It also reexamines the term assemblage, to take into account process and intent along with medium and technique. Allowing for this performative dimension impels a re-evaluation of these artists' works, its impact on subsequent developments, and its place among process-based practices in art since the 1950s.

  • Ethnicity in Hagiography: The Case of Darerca/Moninna/Modwenna/Modwenne in the British Isles, Seventh to Thirteenth Centuries

    Author:
    Diane Auslander
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Thomas Head
    Abstract:

    Abstract ETHNICITY IN HAGIOGRAPHY: THE CASE OF DARERCA/MONINNA/MODWENNA/MONINNA IN THE BRITISH ISLES, SEVENTH TO THIRTEENTH CENTURIES By Diane Peters Auslander Adviser: Professor Thomas Head This is a contextual study of four related hagiographies written from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries in the British Isles. It is probable that there was a seventh-century original that is no longer extant much of which was retained in the tenth-century life. The saint herself is Irish and the earliest name we have for her is Darerca, but her name changes as the lives are rewritten. She is called Moninna in the eleventh-century life, Modwenna in the twelfth-century vita, and Modwenne in the thirteenth-century vie. Darerca is an Irish saint who lives and travels within Ireland and her Irishness is retained throughout these vitae. In the Life of St. Moninna, however, the saint's persona has been conflated with the legends of other saints of the British Isles, many of whom are difficult to identify with any certainty. Moninna's hagiographer includes her Irish journeys, but has her traveling to Scotland and England. In England, she is said to have founded Burton Abbey in the midlands, indicating that her name had become confused with that of a St. Modwenna whose relics were buried at Burton Abbey. In the early twelfth century, the abbot of Burton Abbey rewrote the Life of St. Moninna, retaining its Irish elements, but making it more relevant to an English audience. In c.1235, the text was reworked again at Burton in Anglo-Norman verse. The period during which these four lives were written was one of almost constant movement of peoples and mingling of ethnicities in the British Isles.. For some newcomers, such as the Vikings, the processes of resistance were succeeded by varying degrees of assimilation. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, however, there developed a virulent institutionalized ethnic hostility toward the Irish. Therefore this study examines these lives through the lens of ethnicity, ethnogenesis, assimilation, and bias.

  • EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF DAUBERT'S CROSS-EXAMINATION SAFEGUARD ON ATTORNEYS' AND JURORS' JUDGMENTS ABOUT SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Author:
    Jacqueline Austin
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Psychology
    Advisor:
    Margaret Kovera
    Abstract:

    The Supreme Court's decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc clarified that federal trial judges were to serve as evidentiary gatekeepers for scientific evidence, evaluating scientific reliability when determining admissibility. When judges fail at gatekeeping and admit unreliable expert testimony, the Court expresses faith in the ability of cross-examination to reveal the reliability of testimony for jurors. For cross-examination to function as the Court intends, attorneys must recognize scientific flaws and craft cross-examination questions that expose scientific threats. Moreover, these scientifically informed cross-examinations must act as a form of scientific training for jurors. I conducted two studies to empirically examine the Court's assumptions regarding cross-examination. In Study One, 95 attorneys read a trial summary that contained expert testimony regarding an intelligence test. I varied the validity (presence v. absence of experimenter bias threat) and reliability (moderate v. high reliability indices on test-retest, inter-observer, and internal consistency scores) of the intelligence test. Attorneys provided lower ratings of scientific quality when the test was unreliable but did not craft cross-examination questions designed to expose the low reliability indices of the scientific test. Attorneys did not provide lower ratings of scientific quality when the intelligence test was invalid; however, a proportion of attorneys did craft cross-examination questions to expose the validity threat. In Study Two, I again varied the reliability and validity of the intelligence test and whether the cross-examination educated jurors about the study's flaws (scientifically informed vs. naïve). Either a judge or an attorney conducted the scientifically informed cross-examinations. Scientifically informed cross-examinations did not assist jurors with evaluating scientific reliability or validity. These studies suggest that cross-examinations may not function as a safeguard against flawed scientific evidence. Although some attorneys may be able to meet the Court's expectations, cross-examination may be an ineffective method of providing methodological training for jurors.

  • COMPARATIVE ADS AND THEIR AFFECTIVE CONSEQUENCES: THE EFFECT OF SCHADENFREUDE ON PURCHASE LIKELIHOOD AND ATTITUDES

    Author:
    Ozge Aybat
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Business
    Advisor:
    Thomas Kramer
    Abstract:

    Comparative ads, in which a brand compares itself to a competitor brand, are frequently used in print and television media. When marketers compare their brands to others, they often show comical situations in which misfortunes befall those consumers who are using competitors' brands instead of theirs. Extant research has examined the impact of comparative ads without taking consumers' affective reactions into account, even though persuasive messages have been shown to elicit affective reactions that may mediate consumers' attitudes and behaviors. In the current research, I examine "schadenfreude," defined as the pleasure at the misfortunes of others, as an incidental emotional response elicited by comparative ad appeals. Across a series of studies, I show that more competitive individuals are likely to experience greater levels of incidental schadenfreude when they are exposed to comparative ads. More importantly, I examine the downstream implications of invoking schadenfreude and show that more competitive individuals are more likely to buy the advertised product when a higher-status brand uses comparative ads, since these ads make them experience greater levels of incidental schadenfreude.

  • INTANGIBLE HERITAGE'S UNCERTAIN POLITICAL OUTCOMES: NATIONALISM AND THE REMAKING OF MARGINALIZED CULTURAL PRACTICES IN TURKEY

    Author:
    Bahar Aykan
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Sociology
    Advisor:
    Patricia Clough
    Abstract:

    The scope of cultural heritage management has been extended from tangible to intangible products in the few last decades. Debates surrounding the field of heritage raise fundamental questions about its inherent political character, calling particular attention to the ways in which heritage programs are dominated by nationalistic concerns. This study examines UNESCO-initiated intangible heritage making in Turkey. I focus on the complex relationship between heritage and nationalism, and the various levels of heritage making of marginalized cultural practices by national governments. This study shows that global heritage protection mechanisms have diverse and uncertain outcomes even in the same country. Yet when examined together, these outcomes reveal how heritage mechanisms nonetheless continue to be dominated by nationalist government interests. Drawing on interviews, ethnographic research, and content analysis of the UNESCO documents, I offer three case studies of recent heritage management programs in Turkey launched by the Justice and Development Party (JDP) government to safeguard marginalized cultural practices. These are the Mevlevi Sema ceremony, Nevruz festival, and Alevi-Bektaºi Semah ritual. Radical differences in the Turkish government's methods of handling the heritagization processes of these three practices uncover a recent transformation in the official nationalist policy and discourse in Turkey, from secularist Turkish nationalism (of Kemalism) to Islamist Turkish nationalism (of the JDP). It is these shifting nationalist trends that make Turkey's intangible heritage practices not only an aspect of the politics of recognition (in the case of the Mevlevis), but also of nonrecognition (in the case of the Kurds), and misrecognition (in the case of the Alevi-Bektaºis) regarding the extent these marginalized ethnic and religious identities comply with the current government's nationalist agenda.

  • As Film is, so goes the Novel: The Image, Film Ekphrasis, and History in the Contemporary Novel

    Author:
    Ece Aykol
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    English
    Advisor:
    Gerhard Joseph
    Abstract:

    My dissertation studies the use of the verbal representation of analog film in the novels of contemporary writers Paul Auster, Adam Thorpe, and Orhan Pamuk. I look at these authors' use of the moving image in relation to the existing poetics of the ekphrasis of still images and art objects. Film, understood as the "temporalization of space," informs the way in which I interpret film ekphrasis different from the ekphrasis of still objects that "spatialize temporality." In trying to emulate this temporal art form with words, these authors create a poetics of film ekphrasis, which constitutes a representation of the past in the present continuous. Their allusion to the analog image enables them to find creative means of constructing history and memory. My study also addresses the "digital" image and explains how its construction of time differs from the analog image. In order to grasp the tension between the analog and digital, and to reveal how visual artists are responding to emerging technologies, I turn to the films of Jean-Luc Godard, Michel Gondry, and Wim Wenders, as well as to JoAnn Verburg's photographs and Sam Taylor Wood's mixed media art. Understanding current practices in the visual arts, I suggest, can produce interpretive strategies for the ekphrasis of digital films.

  • Multicultural experience: A multidimensional perspective, scale development, and validation

    Author:
    Zeynep Aytug
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Business
    Advisor:
    Mary Kern
    Abstract:

    This research offers a refined conceptualization of multicultural experience. This multidimensional conceptualization distinguishes between relatively superficial and more substantial multicultural experiences, labeled multicultural exposures and multicultural interactions, which can be measured based on frequency, duration, and breadth. This construct and the corresponding instrument, Multicultural Experience Assessment (MExA), were validated in five studies. In Studies 1a and 1b, content validity was established. In Studies 2 and 3, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure of multicultural experience. Study 4 provided some evidence for the convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validities. The reliability of the 13-item MExA ranged between .76 and .83; and the use of both student and non-student national samples established some generalizability of the instrument. Overall results improve our understanding of the construct and offer a psychometrically tested measure.

  • Dynamics of terrestrial water budget over Amazon and Mississippi basins using satellite data

    Author:
    Marzieh Azarderakhsh
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Engineering
    Advisor:
    Reza Khanbilvardi
    Abstract:

    The components of the water budget and their spatio-temporal variability are diagnosed using monthly-averaged remote sensing-based data products over the Amazon and Mississippi basins. These two large basins are divided into 14 and 12 smaller sub-basins (SB) respectively, and for each of these SBs, fresh water discharge is estimated from the water balance equation using satellite data products. The purpose of this study is to learn how to apply satellite data with global coverage over the large tropical and mid-latitude regions; therefore several combinations of remote sensing estimates including total water storage changes, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The results are compared to gauge-based measurements and the best spatio-temporal agreement between estimated and observed runoff is within 1 mm/d for the combination of precipitation from the GPCP and the Montana evapotranspiration product. Mean annual precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff for the whole basin are estimated to be 6.1, 2.2 and 3.0 mm/d respectively but also show large spatial and temporal variations at SB scale. Using the most consistent data combination, the seasonal dynamics of the water budget within the Amazon system are examined. Agreement between satellite based and in-situ runoff is improved when lag-times between SBs are accounted (RMSE from 0.98 to 0.61 mm/d). We estimate these lag times based on satellite inferred inundation extents. The results reveal not only variations of the basin forcing but also the complex response of the inter-connected SB water budgets. Inter-annual and inter-sub basin variation of the water components are investigated and show large anomalies in north-western and eastern downstream SBs; aggregate behavior of the whole Amazon is more complex than can be represented by a simple integral of the forcing over the whole river system. Moreover, the same approach proposed for Amazon for estimating the runoff is applied to large Mississippi basin. The results show that applying the proposed method can improve the estimation of runoff using the satellite information. Some limitations exist in this basin that will decrease the reliability of the results, as the uncertainty of estimated runoff is greater that the magnitude of runoff due to existence of dams, and smaller precipitation rate compared to Amazon basin.