Alumni Dissertations

 

Alumni Dissertations

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  • Internationalists! The Radical Party Challenges the Italian Left, 1963-1995

    Author:
    Noah Simmons
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Robert David Johnson
    Abstract:

    Marco Pannella and Emma Bonino's Italian Radical Party was a small but influential liberal, non-Marxist political movement committed to upholding individual liberties at home and abroad. During the Cold War, the Radicals held that militarism produced authoritarian welfare states and was at the basis of domestic and global injustice. Antimilitarist pacifism and civil disobedience underpinned their battles for citizen rights, including ones in support of conscientious objection or the legalization of divorce and abortion. Such stances signaled a challenge to Communist and Socialist control over the politics of the left, due to the tendency of both Marxist parties to seek accords with political Catholicism. Radicals rejected Italy's traditional coalition politics and sought to liberalize and simultaneously unify the left against the ruling Christian Democracy. They contrasted their libertarianism and issue-based politics with what they claimed was the tired statism and collectivism of the old left. In the seventies, Radicals interpreted the crisis of Keynesian economics as confirmation that the welfare state could no longer address human needs. They adopted aspects of neoliberalism that dovetailed with their longstanding hostility to welfare all'italiana. After the Cold War, Radicals endorsed military interventions conducted to uphold international law; ethnocide in Africa and Europe motivated a qualification of earlier Radical espousals of nonviolent resistance, revealing a form of juridical pacifism. In their garb as both domestic political group and transnational non-governmental organization, they contributed to the establishment of the International Criminal Court at The Hague instated to try war criminals. Over several decades, Radicals participated in a transformation of global political culture associated with the antiauthoritarian and anti-governmental revolts of the sixties, seventies and eighties. Their antipolitics pitted individuals, self-managed communities, and markets against a declaredly immoral state. Straddling the left-right divide, the Italian Radicals personified both new left and neoliberal dimensions of the antistatist surge of the last third of the twentieth century. Their exaltation of individual rights and negative freedom and their downgrading of economic rights and positive liberty partook in a historical process which has produced freer yet less equal societies.

  • Reviving Enlightenment in the Age of Nationalism: The Historical and Political Thought of Hans Kohn in America

    Author:
    Brian Smollett
    Year of Dissertation:
    2014
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Robert Seltzer
    Abstract:

    This dissertation critically engages the thought of Hans Kohn (1891-1971). One of the most prominent theorists of nationalism in the twentieth century, Kohn has primarily been studied as an anti-statist Zionist thinker and as the originator of a Western-Civic/Eastern-Ethnic "dichotomy" of national development. This work takes a different approach by analyzing the matrix of tension between particularism and universalism in his mature, American thought. I argue that Kohn, especially in response to the crisis of fascism, used history to search for a balance within this perennial tension. His historical analyses, very much tied to his time and context, led him to believe that an ideal balance could be found in the spirit and values of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. Kohn thus used his idea of Enlightenment as an "Archimedean point," upon which he tried to build a humanistic vision for a peaceful future in the context of a global "age of nationalism."

  • Imperial Diplomats: Exploitation, Reform, and the Role of the French Diplomatic Corps in Managing the Napoleonic Empire

    Author:
    Alexander Stavropoulos
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Helena Rosenblatt
    Abstract:

    "Imperial Diplomats: Exploitation, Reform, and the Role of the French Diplomatic Corps in the Napoleonic Empire, 1803-1813" explores, through the examples of two French ambassadors in the satellite states of Bavaria and Spain, how the French Diplomatic Corps used coercion and manipulation to govern the Napoleonic Empire from 1803 to 1813. Relying on the papers of their embassies, this dissertation delves into the role that the ambassadors assumed as the proconsuls of Napoleon's European empire, setting the parameters of the imperial relationship between Paris and the satellites they were stationed in. The ambassadors performed tasks that were central to the proper functioning of that empire, including the maintenance of an extensive series of exploitative measures that secured money and soldiers for France's many wars of conquest, and cajoling the satellites into remaining loyal allies despite the incredible financial burden such exploitation placed on them. The latter was accomplished by quiet coercion and an unspoken quid pro quo between the satellites and France, whereby the French supported local attempts to institute domestic reforms in exchange for the participation of the satellites in the empire. At the same time, the evidence shows that contrary to the assertions of many historians, the domestic reform of the satellites was a low priority for the Emperor's diplomats, with the important exception of admin-istrative and military reforms that strengthened the ability of the satellites to meet the demands of Napoleonic exploitation. The ambassadors, understanding local circumstances much better than the Emperor or the imperial bureaucracy in Paris, softened Napoleon's angry demands, and on occasion altered or disobeyed imperial orders to ensure the support of local collaborators for the Empire, making possible its expansion and maintenance. Moreover, the ambassadors implemented a series of imperial policies that were atypical of nineteenth century European diplomacy, ranging from the enforcement of the Continental System against imported British goods, to the transport of important works of art from the satellites to the Louvre.

  • Cigar Workers and the History of the Labor Movement in Puerto Rico, 1890-1920

    Author:
    Amilcar Tirado
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Alfonso Quiroz
    Abstract:

    During the first two decades of the twentieth century cigar production became a major industry in Puerto Rico. This was a predominantly urban industry in an economy dominated by the agricultural sector, whose product was exported as a complete and final product. The cigar industry was characterized by the employment of a relatively large number of workers. Its growth provided the opportunity for those workers interested in organizing unions to expand their incipient labor unions and also became the principal space for the incorporation of women into the labor market. This dissertation explores the role played by cigar workers in the development of the organized labor movement in Puerto Rico during the early years of the twentieth century. The discussion deals with the influence of this group of workers in the development of a working class ideology, as well as in organizing strategies to be used in the defense of workers interrests, such as strikes. Cigar workers promoted a culture and a way of working which gave them control over time, production, and working conditions.

  • A Cross-boundary People: The Commercial Activities, Social Networks, and Travel Writings of Japanese and Taiwanese Sekimin in the Shantou Treaty Port (1895-1937)

    Author:
    LIN-YI TSENG
    Year of Dissertation:
    2014
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Helena Rosenblatt
    Abstract:

    This dissertation explores Japanese imperial history in East Asia and focuses on a group of "cross-boundary people"--Taiwanese sekimin (Taiwanese who registered as Japanese subjects) and Japanese--who went to the treaty port of Shantou in southern China during the period between 1895 and 1937. The starting time point (i.e., 1895) corresponds to the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, by which Japan acquired Taiwan as a colony and informal privileges in Chinese treaty ports. The ending time point (i.e., 1937) corresponds to the decline that Shantou's Japanese community experienced owing to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War on July 7, 1937. By examining the official documents of the Taiwan General Government, commercial reports of Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and major newspapers and travel writings published in colonial Taiwan, I explore the connections among the Japanese homeland (the metropole), the Japanese formal empire in Taiwan, and the Japanese informal empire in Shantou in terms of commercial activities, human resources, and networks of words. Concerning commercial activities, I argue that Shantou was an important market for both Japanese and Taiwanese goods, and that the commercial network comprising the Japanese metropole, colonial Taiwan, and the Shantou treaty port was significant for Japanese imperial formation in East Asia. Moreover, by analyzing the Japan-China co-invested Dadong Ice-making Company in Shantou, I explore the complicated competitive and cooperative relationships among three notably different ethnic groups there: Taiwanese sekimin, local Chinese, and Japanese in Shantou. By examining the Japan-founded educational institution known as --the Tôç School in Shantou, I clarify two important points: (1) the Taiwan General Government established a network of human resources for the Japanese homeland, colonial Taiwan, and the Shantou treaty port; and (2) this particular school's Japanese and Taiwanese teachers produced writings published in major Taiwanese periodicals, signifying a network of "words" between an element of Japan's formal empire (Taiwan) and an element of Japan's informal empire (Shantou).

  • The "Mary Carver" Affair: United States Foreign Policy and the Africa Squadron, 1841 - 1845

    Author:
    Amy Van Natter
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Robert David Johnson
    Abstract:

    Diplomatic historians have ignored the U.S. Africa squadron, leaving the subject to slave trade historians. Consequently, the squadron has only been interpreted through the narrow lens of the slave trade, resulting in a distorted view of a failed squadron disconnected from foreign policy. This dissertation re-evaluates the squadron from a foreign policy perspective and concludes that it was not created to suppress the slave trade. Instead, it argues that the United States created the squadron in response to an escalating dispute with Britain over the future of international law. Britain wanted the United States to concede the right of search to facilitate slave trade suppression, but the United States refused. Granting Britain the peacetime right of search would change international law, threatening free navigation of the seas. Americans argued that such a change would make slaves of us all. Britain increased pressure on the United States to concede by illegally searching more merchant vessels flying the American flag, provoking a serious diplomatic dispute. As this situation escalated, Americans dispatched naval cruisers to protect their merchant vessels from British interference. The dispute worsened to the point that the United States needed a permanent Africa squadron to protect Americans from ongoing British abuse. The proposed squadron faced many political obstacles. Ultimately, the tragedy of the merchantman Mary Carver helped the Tyler administration secure the necessary support and funding. The Mary Carver had been trading along the coast of West Africa when natives murdered her crew and destroyed the schooner. The attack provided the administration with a new justification for the squadron. Squadron supporters created an exaggerated portrait of Africans as savage pirates who preyed on American shipping, arguing that the incident proved the need for a squadron. Historians have mistakenly assumed that the United States created the squadron to suppress the slave trade and consequently judged it a failure. But the squadron was primarily created to protect Americans and their interests in West Africa; suppressing the slave trade was only a secondary concern. Considered in light of its total purpose and mission, the first U.S. Africa squadron was far from a failure.

  • The Business of Settlement: Land Companies and Colonization in the British Empire, ca 1800-1850

    Author:
    Cheryl Wahl
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Timothy Alborn
    Abstract:

    When analyzed in a comparative fashion, rather than an understanding of British policy as a mass of "apparent inconsistencies which seem to defy coherent analysis," imperial policy clarifies and displays an evolution as it reflected changes based on knowledge gained from the colonies themselves and highlights domestic legal, social, and political changes. Imperial policy failed to "design an international regime that would make the world safe for the monarchial, propertied, gentlemanly orders" by the end of the 1830s. A study of land companies demonstrates the significance of the gentlemanly capitalists and the importance of the relationship of these men with the Home Government in the creation and implementation of imperial policy, specifically the Anglicization policy. A study of the three land companies allows a view of foreign investment before the bubble burst with a study of the Canada Company, after it burst but while a sense of optimism existed towards land companies with a discussion of BALC, and long after the optimism toward land companies died with an analysis of the New Zealand Company. As a new domestic environment arose, which included strict interpretation of contract and law and greater regulation of overseas investments, the Government changed along with this new state of affairs. The land companies, however, sought to ignore the changing domestic atmosphere and to maintain privileges typically associated with gentlemanly status. The failure of the Anglicization policy post 1837 accelerated the "ungentlemanly" nature of the relationship between the Home government and gentlemanly capitalists. The inability of the British government and land companies to institute English traditions through assimilation at the periphery had implications on a global scale. As the Anglicization policy failed, ideas regarding the inferiority of imperial subjects emerged. The construction of races of non-British colonial occupants created not only racism within the colonies, but also created pre-conditions for ready acceptance of racial inferiority associated with Social Darwinism in the second half of the century.

  • An Uneasy Idealism: The Reconstruction of American Adolescence from World War II to the War on Poverty

    Author:
    Lucas Waltzer
    Year of Dissertation:
    2009
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    David Nasaw
    Abstract:

    This dissertation argues that American adolescence was reconstructed in the two decades after the end of World War II. At the beginning of the period, adolescent behavior was widely seen as a function of biological and psychological factors inside the individual. By the end, more adults understood the behavior of the young as reflective of the broader social, cultural, and political currents in American life. This transition was primarily visible in the reformulation of juvenile delinquency policy during these years. It was also present in the other realms where adolescence was constructed: in the mass media's investigation and entrepreneurial exploitation of youth, in the discourses that surrounded youth culture and consumption, in battles over school curricula, and in the way adolescence was invoked by politicians and other authority figures. This project looks at the reconstruction of adolescence both nationally and in New York City, and ultimately demonstrates that the concept is often about much more than the collective experiences of an age group made up of individuals who are transitioning to adulthood.

  • American Missionaries, Armenian Community, and the Making of Protestantism in the Ottoman Empire, 1820-1860

    Author:
    Cemal Yetkiner
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    BETH BARON
    Abstract:

    This dissertation explores how missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) started their journey to the East hoping to reach Jerusalem to "save" souls and "convert" Jews and Muslims in the Bible lands (1819), ultimately landed in Istanbul (1831), and partitioned the Armenian Church in the Ottoman Empire into two (1846). The study focuses upon American Protestant missionaries and examines their complex relations with the indigenous population of the region, especially the Armenians. Missionary relations with the "heathens" (as missionaries often referred to the locals) led to the formation of the "Protestant millet" in the Ottoman Empire. This study argues that American missionaries had contradictory impact on the Armenian community in the Ottoman Empire. On the one hand, they introduced missionary services, most importantly education, to the Armenian community in the Ottoman capital and across Asia Minor, preparing Armenians for the financial and spiritual challenges of the nineteenth century. On the other hand, they divided the same community, transforming and creating new factions.

  • Love's Ethics: Sibilla Aleramo and Queer Feminism in Fin de Siècle Italy

    Author:
    Ellen Zitani
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    History
    Advisor:
    Mary Gibson
    Abstract:

    Utilizing the love story of feminists Sibilla Aleramo and Lina Poletti as a case study, this work illustrates lesbianism's complicated intersection with the public discourses of sexology, feminism and sexual ethics in turn-of-the-century Italy. While both Aleramo (famous for her 1906 feminist anthem, Una donna) and Poletti (a lesser-known scholar and activist) served on the frontlines of the Italian women's emancipation movement, their private lives lingered on the far periphery of acceptable sexual practices in recently-unified Italy. This dissertation looks at the public and private discourses surrounding the topics of women's homosexuality, love and polyamory in Italy in order to demonstrate how same-sex attraction, gender-nonconformity, feminism, and sexual ethics were understood and articulated by early-twentieth-century Italians. Italian public discourse by medical, criminological and social researchers categorized lesbianism as a disease, a sign or result of gender-nonconformity and sometimes criminality, or as a foreign plague infecting Italy's feminists. In contrast, Aleramo all but rejected the ideas of the sexologists and instead relied on the discourses of feminism and sexual ethics to inform her ideas on gender-nonconformity, homosexuality and monogamy. For her, homosexuality was not an identity or a disease. She saw love as feminist and debated sexual ethics in order to develop a new sexual space for herself and all Italian women, hetero- and homosexual.