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"Making the Devil Useful": English Teachers and the Movies in America, 1910-1941
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From its earliest stages of development in the late 1800s, the academic discipline of English has been characterized by a split into two distinct, variously valued academic activities. The putative "high" side of the binary, the teaching and study of works of literature, has traditionally been privileged as the true, noble calling of the discipline, while the "low" side, composition, has functioned as the service sector of the field, serving to acculturate beginning writers to official, authorized conventions of written discourse. English, as bifurcated as it is, has by and large had a fairly long, healthy and quite productive relationship with the movies, having meaningfully incorporated film on either side of the composition/literature split. The cultural relevance and pedagogical possibilities of film have even from very early on intrigued enough teachers and scholars to merit a substantial degree of attention to both the film medium and film-based approaches to teaching both literature and composition in well-known professional publications like The English Journal and The Educational Screen. From the 1910s, narrative fiction films have served as an adjunct for literary study or even as an object of analysis itself, on the one hand, and as a heuristic of various sorts for composition instruction, on the other, at both the secondary and post-secondary levels. This dissertation, then, considers the varied ways in which American teachers of English responded to and integrated commercial theatrical films into writing and literature curricula from the 1910s through the decline of the film appreciation movement in the early 1940s in the wake to a shift in the focus of American education from Progressive educational priorities to the pragmatic needs of a country at war. It explores contemporary professional and popular discourses around film and pedagogy that reflected, animated, and problematized classroom practice during this period. It presents a critical reception history of film in English as animated by implicit preoccupations with, among others, questions concerning textuality, art, literariness, subjectivity, spectatorship, cultural value, social hygiene, and democratic action that informed classroom practice and professional discourses on movies within English curricula through the start of World War II.
The Dramatic Milton
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Abstract The Dramatic Milton By William W. Goldstein Advisor: Joseph Wittreich Thomas De Quincey in 1852 remarked upon the excellence of Milton's Samson Agonistes as an example of Greek tragedy, writing, "I am satisfied that Milton meant him to dance." De Quincey is a touchstone within a broadly theatrical history of Samson Agonistes and Milton's poetic career that this dissertation, combining archival research, textual analysis and performative theory, makes a first effort to establish. I chronicle the extensive, largely unexamined performance history of Samson Agonistes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrating that productions have been intricately entwined with an expansion of the Elizabethan and international dramatic canon spearheaded by leading theater artists, in the process transforming contemporary understanding of the political and cultural possibilities of theater. Key productions, I argue, stand in the history of Milton criticism as a harbinger of hermeneutics, as directors and actors lead anew in performance, offering an unexplored body of critical inquiry and interpretation prefiguring critical debates about Milton and his work. I expose the shadows of dramatic traditions in Milton's biblical poetry, including the influence of English religious drama that has been almost completely neglected, and examine the question of Samson's heroism in the context of Greek epic, particularly as it informs Milton's choice of tragedy as the genre for Samson Agonistes. I further foreground how Milton's life-long interest in the drama shaped his career as a poet. Exposing the echoes in Samson Agonistes of Milton's earliest works and influences, I argue there is a theatrical structure to Milton's 1671 volume, which is the culmination of the career prophesied by poems Milton wrote nearly a half-century earlier, such as On Shakespeare, On the Morning of Christ's Nativity and Lycidas. Reading them through the prism of Milton's 1671 volume reveals that the latter work represents what might be called the theatrical afterlife of Milton's beginnings as a poet. Stressing the continuity of Milton's poetic language across time, I argue that links between his 1671 volume and his 1645 Poems of Mr. John Milton reveals a career encircled and defined, at first and near its end, by the dramatic Milton's engagement with theatrical metaphors and concerns.
Crossing the Line: Kathy Acker, William S Burroughs, and the Politics of Piracy
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"Crossing the Line: Kathy Acker, Williams S. Burroughs and the Politics of Piracy" investigates Kathy Acker and William S Burroughs' insistence that pirates and acts of piracy are models for political action in late capitalism. Acker and Burroughs' later texts, Don Quixote, Empire of the Senseless and Cities of the Red Night and Ghosts of a Chance respectively, use pirates as both aesthetic and narrative tropes. I seek to show that Acker and Burroughs' use of pirates is an attempt at fashioning a wide-ranging critique of late capitalism and changing and expanding forms of control and power. The pirate, for Acker and Burroughs, becomes a figuration, a vessel, for the re-imagining of a politically active, restive, mode of being. By investigating the role of piracy in their texts, I open a space of discussion that highlights Acker and Burroughs' commitment to revolutionary politics indebted to their deep belief in the power of literature to shape and engender communities. The literary enunciation of affective communities illuminates the gap between literature and theory. Acker and Burroughs maintain the importance of affect in human relations. In other words, in the face of what Fredric Jameson labels the waning of affect under late capitalism, Acker and Burroughs posit highly charged affective relationships between people.
The Switch: Freedoms in Sexuality, Desire, Gender, and Identity
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The broad aim of my dissertation is to expand the horizon and discourse of variant gender and sexual identities and practices through introducing the theoretical model, practice, and typology of the switch and switching; radical acceptance, understanding, and a new theory emerge. This emergence has the added impact of immediately and powerfully validating people's lives and experiences; by extension, the possibility for all to live with greater freedom, self-expression, and authenticity in exploring and playing with identity, desires, roles, and practices is established. My specific focus is to look at and celebrate non-normative/variant gender and sexual identities. My specific aim is to reveal where and how gender and sexual variants create, revise, redefine, and play with language, roles, desires, bodies, public and private sex practices and identity in the action known as "switching." To switch, and the process of engaging in the action of switching, can most broadly be described as dwelling in, and having the intention of, honoring, exploring, and sharing different, switchable aspects of a state of being, idea or concept, person, persona or character. I am looking at the intersecting practice of non-normative gender, sexual, and identity switching that all of my experimental authors and their characters play with. Gertrude Stein, Jeanette Winterson, Kathy Acker, Eileen Myles, Anne Carson, and Anne Carson's translation of Sappho all demonstrate switching. The identities deconstructed in this dissertation create and give space to, by their playful and exploratory nature, a great deal of gender, sexual, and identity play and masquerade (whether they are stable or in flux); they elicit openings, possibilities, and ambiguities in writing, reading, deconstructing and recreating gender identifications, sexual identities, sex and gender roles, subversive and perverse practices, as well as subcultural and personal practices. Thusly, my project has a simple foundation: it is grounded in the possibility that anything is possible and that every one of us lives a life of full self-expression and freedom.
Creative Nonfiction: Chasing Its Own tale
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Abstract Creative Nonfiction: Chasing Its Own Tale By Isabel Grayson Advisor: Professor Sondra Perl This dissertation explores the theory, history, and criticism of creative nonfiction to foreground the issues of truth in personal writing. My thesis focuses on memoir and personal essay and asks whether creative nonfiction can deliver on its promise, whether it can lay bare the bones of nonfiction using creative tools. I explore how authors problematize truth in their works and what challenges creative nonfiction writers and readers to trust the truth of self in texts. I examine the pitfalls of creative nonfiction - what gives it an unreliable reputation in some circles and why its ethics are questioned. Creative nonfiction pilfers from genres that also pilfer from one another so that it lives in a borderland of shifting boundaries that defy neat categorization. At the heart of my project, I offer evidence that creative nonfiction can be as authentic as the "self-evacuated prose of western epistemology" (Bishop 34), for self, truth and the world mirror one another, tell the truth on one another as they shape and reshape one another with time. This messy movement and plasticity can be more honest than some distilled truth that unrealistically offers an ironclad meaning behind the curtain of objectivity or omniscience. With self's face in front of each word in creative nonfiction, the "I" stands honest, putting truth where its mouth is, holding the self accountable, reminding us, lest we forget, a being with all its desires, hatreds, memories, narratives, biases is, after all, honestly in everything we write and read. Truth then becomes human. This dissertation argues with the first person singular and creative nonfiction for the first person singular and creative nonfiction as a valid means of truth/knowledge-making in our personal essays, and finally in our students' writing. In short, this project chases the tale of creative nonfiction through the centuries.
Reading Through Prayer: Lectio Divina and "Liturgical Reading" in Some Medieval Texts
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E. Gordon Whatley
Prayer texts found in a variety of medieval genres merit more careful scrutiny from literary critical perspectives. Such attention to the verbal artifacts, prayers, that memorialize an activity of central importance in medieval culture, praying, deepens our understanding not only of the prayers and the works in which they are found, but also of the milieu that produced them. This study seeks to model such a critical turn by reading three particular works "through" the prayers that constitute, punctuate and frame them -- privileging the prayers as the starting points for the investigation of their literary and devotional settings. This vantage yields fresh insights into an Anglo-Latin prayerbook -- The Book of Nunnaminster, Cynewulf's Old English poem Elene, and the Middle English prose Seinte Margarete of the Katherine Group. This approach reveals as well the high degree of association between prayer and reading in medieval culture where prayers are most often highly formal or formulaic texts intended to be read (rather than spontaneous speech) and praying is often figured as an interpretive activity akin to reading. Two medieval reading practices, lectio divina and "liturgical reading," have shaped both the discrete prayers and the whole works examined here. The full appreciation of these texts, and perhaps many others, requires close attention to the prayers within them and an understanding of these habits of prayerful reading.
TRANSNATIONAL MEMORIES OF THE SELF: REFLECTIONS ON POSTCOMMUNIST AND POSTCOLONIAL LIFE-WRITING BY WOMEN
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This dissertation explores contemporary memoirs in English by transnational women authors writing during the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century. Centered on questions of language as primary identity marker, my analysis follows these authors' identity construction within a postcommunist and postcolonial cultural landscape. I bring postcommunist and postcolonial memoirs together under the sign of minor transnationalism (Francoise Lionnet and Shu-mei Shih) as critical praxis reflective of geopolitical marginality. It is a premise of this inquiry that much of contemporary postcommunist and postcolonial literature is the product of writing outside an original home country and nation state. Indeed, what is at stake is precisely the understanding of the role of the autobiographical enterprise initiated by a need for responding to and reflecting upon a collective history left behind through a personal odyssey and recuperated through the act of writing itself. I perceive this life-writing as defined by migration and displacement, often culminating in a sense of complex deterritorialization of the self that ultimately transcends the national space through a migrant rhetoric and poetics of its own. Rather than favoring a positioning of so-called Third World voices vis-à-vis, yet again, the hegemonic others, what Sara Suleri calls "the devastating rhetoric of `us and them,'" the concept of minor transnationalism seeks the possibility of a dialogue and coalition among those historically designated as the globally marginal. While the "minor" in the term minor transnationalism remains reflective of Deleuze and Guattari's original definition of a minor literature written in a major language, the emphasis in this case falls upon a minor status understood in geopolitical terms: the countries represented by these memoirs remain outside the Western Hemisphere. As Lionnet argues, "it is only by imagining nonhierarchical modes of relation among cultures" that we can avoid reiterating those "exclusionary practices" that have dominated Western thought throughout most of its history. A more mutual dialogue can be facilitated thus between countries in the Second World (i.e. former communist countries in East-Central Europe) and countries in the Third World within a post-Cold War political climate marked by the demise of the Soviet Union, a historical change comparable in significance to the end of colonial rules.
Significant Little Wrecks: Lorine Niedecker, George Oppen, and the Question of "Small Poetry" in Twentieth-Century American Writing
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Certainly a great deal of critical attention has been paid to collage and disjunction in experimental poetry; likewise, there are valuable discussions of poetic brevity and concision. But there is not yet sufficient work on how the conjunction of these two features constitutes a unique poetic strain, a sort of "genus": spare, damaged groups of words posited as page-contained, emphatically material, readable objects. In this study I argue that there is indeed such a poetic type in twentieth-century American poetry, that it is mainly characterized not by lyric criteria (of voice and subjectivity) or mere size ("short" poems) but by an emblematic use of form, and thus that the significances of this type can best be drawn out through a textual-semiotic approach to the relevant words, pages, and books. I explore a notion of form that entails both the material qualities embodied in these words, pages, and books, and also, much more narrowly, the exclusive potential in constructed things or objects to function as conceptual shells, totem-like vehicles that can figure accretions of ideas, feelings, and associations. Though the study of experimental poetry has regularly made use of semiotics, it has relied almost exclusively on the work of Saussure, neglecting the rich earlier work of thinkers like the American Philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. In my dissertation I use Peirce's semiotics to help construct a theory of "small poems" in America, focusing on the works of Lorine Niedecker and George Oppen, and, continuing into the present moment, Susan Howe and Myung Mi Kim. The written output of all four poets is almost exclusively limited to disjunctive, spare, page-bound verses. In response to the enveloping, relentless violence and upheaval of modern experience, both before and after the Second World War, these poets present the irreducible facts of their cryptic hand-marked forms. According to my reading, a disciplined commitment to small poems constitutes an investment in negative values of refusal, transience, and inscrutability --what Theodor Adorno calls "barbaric asceticism in the arts" (Minima Moralia)--as means of articulating an emblematic response to twentieth-century violence and superfluity. I also contend that, in spite of these negative postures or gestures, Niedecker, Oppen, Howe, and Kim do not enact the strict Nominalist skepticism about language often claimed for modernist (or "post-modernist") poetics. Instead, in ways consonant with Peirce's philosophical Realism, their poems affirm the adequacy of language to human experience by insisting on their own material status as incised documents of witness and as emblems of dissent.
Hearing Cinematic Modernism: Sound, Film, and Modernist Women's Prose
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This dissertation focuses on the relationship between sound cinema and literary modernism in the interwar period. Recent scholarship on cinema and literature has provided important grounds of comparison between these two media. However, scholars have defined cinema as a visual medium when, in fact, perceptions and valuations of the cinematic medium were historically shaped by sounds as much as images. In this project, I read aural and visual representations in the literary texts of the British writers Vernon Lee, Dorothy Richardson, and Virginia Woolf in the context of contentious debates on the meaning of sound cinema in the 1910s and 1920s. Exploring the sounds of cinema in women's writing, I argue, asserts the importance of this medium to interwar prose without reverting to visual concepts (like the gaze) that claim a subject and object dichotomy along gendered lines. I conclude by focusing on two early women filmmakers, Alice Guy-Blaché and Germaine Dulac, showing how their development of film sound resonates with the literary texts of Lee, Richardson, and Woolf. My central aims in this project are to explain the value of cinema for women writers in the interwar period and to establish a new means of conducting intermedial research between literature and film through a focus on the audiovisual as well as the visual elements of cinema.
"You've Got to Be Modernistic": American Vernacular Modernism, 1910-1937
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This study interrogates the commonly held assumption that literary modernism--broadly conceived--was an exclusively international, cosmopolitan, and elite movement violently opposed to the commercial marketplace. The thesis of this project argues that modernist literary experimentation appeared in many popular contexts in American literature of the early twentieth century. I call this aesthetically experimental popular writing "vernacular modernism," a reference to its reliance on American slang and to its anti-elitist position in the cultural hierarchy. This "vernacular modernism" drew its inspiration from H.L. Mencken's study The American Language, a work that implicitly allies the American vernacular with both formal and linguistic innovation as well as a harsh critique of the same nineteenth-century bourgeois gentility that canonical modernist writers rejected. Throughout this period, writers in a variety of popular genres were experimenting with language, subjectivity, and representation in works published alongside well-recognized modernist texts. To demonstrate this phenomenon, I apply a combination of cultural studies and formalism to fiction in four genres: humor writing, the Jewish-American memoir, hard-boiled crime fiction, and the urban novel of the Harlem Renaissance. Ring Lardner and Anita Loos, Anzia Yezierska and Michael Gold, Carroll John Daly and Dashiell Hammett, and Rudolph Fisher and Claude McKay serve as paired subjects that transform their respective genres in ways analogous to the literary experimentation of high modernists. Understanding these popular writers as "vernacular modernists" allows a thorough consideration of the authentic dialogue between experimental vernacular language and modernist aesthetics, enabling fruitful new readings of mid-1930s American modernists (William Faulkner, Zora Neale Hurston, and John Dos Passos) engaged with regionalism, racial and ethnic identity, and working-class consciousness.