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Creative Nonfiction: Chasing Its Own tale
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Abstract Creative Nonfiction: Chasing Its Own Tale By Isabel Grayson Advisor: Professor Sondra Perl This dissertation explores the theory, history, and criticism of creative nonfiction to foreground the issues of truth in personal writing. My thesis focuses on memoir and personal essay and asks whether creative nonfiction can deliver on its promise, whether it can lay bare the bones of nonfiction using creative tools. I explore how authors problematize truth in their works and what challenges creative nonfiction writers and readers to trust the truth of self in texts. I examine the pitfalls of creative nonfiction - what gives it an unreliable reputation in some circles and why its ethics are questioned. Creative nonfiction pilfers from genres that also pilfer from one another so that it lives in a borderland of shifting boundaries that defy neat categorization. At the heart of my project, I offer evidence that creative nonfiction can be as authentic as the "self-evacuated prose of western epistemology" (Bishop 34), for self, truth and the world mirror one another, tell the truth on one another as they shape and reshape one another with time. This messy movement and plasticity can be more honest than some distilled truth that unrealistically offers an ironclad meaning behind the curtain of objectivity or omniscience. With self's face in front of each word in creative nonfiction, the "I" stands honest, putting truth where its mouth is, holding the self accountable, reminding us, lest we forget, a being with all its desires, hatreds, memories, narratives, biases is, after all, honestly in everything we write and read. Truth then becomes human. This dissertation argues with the first person singular and creative nonfiction for the first person singular and creative nonfiction as a valid means of truth/knowledge-making in our personal essays, and finally in our students' writing. In short, this project chases the tale of creative nonfiction through the centuries.
Reading Through Prayer: Lectio Divina and "Liturgical Reading" in Some Medieval Texts
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E. Gordon Whatley
Prayer texts found in a variety of medieval genres merit more careful scrutiny from literary critical perspectives. Such attention to the verbal artifacts, prayers, that memorialize an activity of central importance in medieval culture, praying, deepens our understanding not only of the prayers and the works in which they are found, but also of the milieu that produced them. This study seeks to model such a critical turn by reading three particular works "through" the prayers that constitute, punctuate and frame them -- privileging the prayers as the starting points for the investigation of their literary and devotional settings. This vantage yields fresh insights into an Anglo-Latin prayerbook -- The Book of Nunnaminster, Cynewulf's Old English poem Elene, and the Middle English prose Seinte Margarete of the Katherine Group. This approach reveals as well the high degree of association between prayer and reading in medieval culture where prayers are most often highly formal or formulaic texts intended to be read (rather than spontaneous speech) and praying is often figured as an interpretive activity akin to reading. Two medieval reading practices, lectio divina and "liturgical reading," have shaped both the discrete prayers and the whole works examined here. The full appreciation of these texts, and perhaps many others, requires close attention to the prayers within them and an understanding of these habits of prayerful reading.
TRANSNATIONAL MEMORIES OF THE SELF: REFLECTIONS ON POSTCOMMUNIST AND POSTCOLONIAL LIFE-WRITING BY WOMEN
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This dissertation explores contemporary memoirs in English by transnational women authors writing during the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century. Centered on questions of language as primary identity marker, my analysis follows these authors' identity construction within a postcommunist and postcolonial cultural landscape. I bring postcommunist and postcolonial memoirs together under the sign of minor transnationalism (Francoise Lionnet and Shu-mei Shih) as critical praxis reflective of geopolitical marginality. It is a premise of this inquiry that much of contemporary postcommunist and postcolonial literature is the product of writing outside an original home country and nation state. Indeed, what is at stake is precisely the understanding of the role of the autobiographical enterprise initiated by a need for responding to and reflecting upon a collective history left behind through a personal odyssey and recuperated through the act of writing itself. I perceive this life-writing as defined by migration and displacement, often culminating in a sense of complex deterritorialization of the self that ultimately transcends the national space through a migrant rhetoric and poetics of its own. Rather than favoring a positioning of so-called Third World voices vis-à-vis, yet again, the hegemonic others, what Sara Suleri calls "the devastating rhetoric of `us and them,'" the concept of minor transnationalism seeks the possibility of a dialogue and coalition among those historically designated as the globally marginal. While the "minor" in the term minor transnationalism remains reflective of Deleuze and Guattari's original definition of a minor literature written in a major language, the emphasis in this case falls upon a minor status understood in geopolitical terms: the countries represented by these memoirs remain outside the Western Hemisphere. As Lionnet argues, "it is only by imagining nonhierarchical modes of relation among cultures" that we can avoid reiterating those "exclusionary practices" that have dominated Western thought throughout most of its history. A more mutual dialogue can be facilitated thus between countries in the Second World (i.e. former communist countries in East-Central Europe) and countries in the Third World within a post-Cold War political climate marked by the demise of the Soviet Union, a historical change comparable in significance to the end of colonial rules.
Significant Little Wrecks: Lorine Niedecker, George Oppen, and the Question of "Small Poetry" in Twentieth-Century American Writing
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Certainly a great deal of critical attention has been paid to collage and disjunction in experimental poetry; likewise, there are valuable discussions of poetic brevity and concision. But there is not yet sufficient work on how the conjunction of these two features constitutes a unique poetic strain, a sort of "genus": spare, damaged groups of words posited as page-contained, emphatically material, readable objects. In this study I argue that there is indeed such a poetic type in twentieth-century American poetry, that it is mainly characterized not by lyric criteria (of voice and subjectivity) or mere size ("short" poems) but by an emblematic use of form, and thus that the significances of this type can best be drawn out through a textual-semiotic approach to the relevant words, pages, and books. I explore a notion of form that entails both the material qualities embodied in these words, pages, and books, and also, much more narrowly, the exclusive potential in constructed things or objects to function as conceptual shells, totem-like vehicles that can figure accretions of ideas, feelings, and associations. Though the study of experimental poetry has regularly made use of semiotics, it has relied almost exclusively on the work of Saussure, neglecting the rich earlier work of thinkers like the American Philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. In my dissertation I use Peirce's semiotics to help construct a theory of "small poems" in America, focusing on the works of Lorine Niedecker and George Oppen, and, continuing into the present moment, Susan Howe and Myung Mi Kim. The written output of all four poets is almost exclusively limited to disjunctive, spare, page-bound verses. In response to the enveloping, relentless violence and upheaval of modern experience, both before and after the Second World War, these poets present the irreducible facts of their cryptic hand-marked forms. According to my reading, a disciplined commitment to small poems constitutes an investment in negative values of refusal, transience, and inscrutability --what Theodor Adorno calls "barbaric asceticism in the arts" (Minima Moralia)--as means of articulating an emblematic response to twentieth-century violence and superfluity. I also contend that, in spite of these negative postures or gestures, Niedecker, Oppen, Howe, and Kim do not enact the strict Nominalist skepticism about language often claimed for modernist (or "post-modernist") poetics. Instead, in ways consonant with Peirce's philosophical Realism, their poems affirm the adequacy of language to human experience by insisting on their own material status as incised documents of witness and as emblems of dissent.
Hearing Cinematic Modernism: Sound, Film, and Modernist Women's Prose
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This dissertation focuses on the relationship between sound cinema and literary modernism in the interwar period. Recent scholarship on cinema and literature has provided important grounds of comparison between these two media. However, scholars have defined cinema as a visual medium when, in fact, perceptions and valuations of the cinematic medium were historically shaped by sounds as much as images. In this project, I read aural and visual representations in the literary texts of the British writers Vernon Lee, Dorothy Richardson, and Virginia Woolf in the context of contentious debates on the meaning of sound cinema in the 1910s and 1920s. Exploring the sounds of cinema in women's writing, I argue, asserts the importance of this medium to interwar prose without reverting to visual concepts (like the gaze) that claim a subject and object dichotomy along gendered lines. I conclude by focusing on two early women filmmakers, Alice Guy-Blaché and Germaine Dulac, showing how their development of film sound resonates with the literary texts of Lee, Richardson, and Woolf. My central aims in this project are to explain the value of cinema for women writers in the interwar period and to establish a new means of conducting intermedial research between literature and film through a focus on the audiovisual as well as the visual elements of cinema.
"You've Got to Be Modernistic": American Vernacular Modernism, 1910-1937
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This study interrogates the commonly held assumption that literary modernism--broadly conceived--was an exclusively international, cosmopolitan, and elite movement violently opposed to the commercial marketplace. The thesis of this project argues that modernist literary experimentation appeared in many popular contexts in American literature of the early twentieth century. I call this aesthetically experimental popular writing "vernacular modernism," a reference to its reliance on American slang and to its anti-elitist position in the cultural hierarchy. This "vernacular modernism" drew its inspiration from H.L. Mencken's study The American Language, a work that implicitly allies the American vernacular with both formal and linguistic innovation as well as a harsh critique of the same nineteenth-century bourgeois gentility that canonical modernist writers rejected. Throughout this period, writers in a variety of popular genres were experimenting with language, subjectivity, and representation in works published alongside well-recognized modernist texts. To demonstrate this phenomenon, I apply a combination of cultural studies and formalism to fiction in four genres: humor writing, the Jewish-American memoir, hard-boiled crime fiction, and the urban novel of the Harlem Renaissance. Ring Lardner and Anita Loos, Anzia Yezierska and Michael Gold, Carroll John Daly and Dashiell Hammett, and Rudolph Fisher and Claude McKay serve as paired subjects that transform their respective genres in ways analogous to the literary experimentation of high modernists. Understanding these popular writers as "vernacular modernists" allows a thorough consideration of the authentic dialogue between experimental vernacular language and modernist aesthetics, enabling fruitful new readings of mid-1930s American modernists (William Faulkner, Zora Neale Hurston, and John Dos Passos) engaged with regionalism, racial and ethnic identity, and working-class consciousness.
The Wild Child: Children Are Freaks in Antebellum Novels
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Abstract The Wild Child: Children are Freaks in Antebellum Novels by Heather Bernadette Heim Advisor: Professor Hildegard Hoeller This dissertation investigates the spectacle of antebellum freak shows and focuses on how Phineas Taylor Barnum's influence permeates five antebellum novels. The study concerns itself with wild children staged as freaks in by Sylvester Judd, City Crimes by George Thompson, The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe and Our Nig by Harriet Wilson. Barnum's influence was pervasive. The novels I investigate span a period of fourteen years before the Civil War, and offer a view of the kid show presented by the freaks in each text. Touching into spectacle, authors construct narratives and stage freaks in order to solidify boundaries that define insiders and outsiders. These works offer entertaining and didactic freaks to be gawked at and probed. As is usual with freak shows, the viewers/readers provide as much information about society and spectatorship in nineteenth century America, as do the freaks themselves.
Dark Matter: Susan Howe, Muriel Rukeyser, and the Scholar's Art
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Instead of describing poetry as a set of constraints or history of practices, Muriel Rukeyser calls it "one kind of knowledge." Dark Matter heeds Rukeyser's call, theorizing a poetics of the "scholar's art," in which documentary investigation, autobiographical exploration, and formal innovation are mutual, interwoven concerns. The dissertation pairs American poets Susan Howe (b. 1937) and Muriel Rukeyser (1913-1980), reading their hybrid works not through the received categories of American poetry, or through common generic and disciplinary divisions, but using an inductive methodology that takes its lead from the poets. Understanding Howe and Rukeyser's literary experiments as serious interventions in broad fields of thought, I seek out and delve into their many sources - literary, historical, mythological, philosophical, scientific, and intimate. Rukeyser is commonly read as feminist poet of witness, and Howe an aesthetic innovator. The assumptions that underlie these categorizations get at the heart of what poetry is, why it matters, and how it relates to the project of living. Implicit are ideas about the relationship between poetry and politics, what constitutes artistic experimentation, and how poems should and do address lives, particularly the intimate lives of women. Within these frameworks, the qualities that have made Rukeyser's genre-challenging books so difficult to interpret and place are the same that have secured for Howe's a preeminent position in contemporary poetry. But just as Rukeyser's experiments in form are illegible to readers with particular expectations of realism, Howe scholarship suffers from a related, if inverted, short-sightedness: many revel in her linguistic ingenuity without probing its profound philosophical underpinnings or explicitly personal stakes. An act of scholarly reclamation, Dark Matter interrogates texts of Rukeyser's that have received scant or no critical attention: her 1942 biography of physical chemist Willard Gibbs, her musical about Harry Houdini (1973), and The Orgy (1965), her book about the pagan festival, Puck Fair. I read these alongside kindred texts by Howe: Pierce-Arrow (1999), which is indebted to Pragmatist philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce; The Liberties (1980), which joins Jonathan Swift's mistress Stella and Shakespeare's Cordelia; and THAT THIS (2010), which investigates archival scholarship through the lens of personal grief.
Endless Assents: John Dewey, Aesthetic Experience and the Promise of American Poetry
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Endless Assents makes the argument that John Dewey's theory of art (articulated in such texts as Experience and Nature and Art as Experience) offers a new and fruitful way of better appreciating and understanding the uniquely generative and transformative value of aesthetic experience in American poetry (specifically in the works of Wallace Stevens, Marianne Moore, Elizabeth Bishop, John Ashbery, and A.R. Ammons). Understood from the perspective of Dewey's explicitly naturalist philosophy of aesthetic experience, the poetry and poetic discourse examined in this dissertation is interpreted (in various different ways) as an example of the simple fact that art is neither a fixed concept nor a static object but is instead a quality of experience, made manifest through active engagement with the environment. Thus art and aesthetic experience, far from representing some abstract ideal of beauty--somehow separate from the ugly business of so-called "ordinary" life--is in fact an active and integral, though rarely realized, part of day to day experience. Understood thus, the aesthetic becomes, as it did for all of the poets in this dissertation, not only a source of pleasure, but a method for engaging with and changing our environment. Such a realization marks a radical shift in the way that American poets thought about the value and use of their own work and of poetry more broadly. This realization, however, as Dewey argues, is impossible without first recognizing the value and embracing the experience of what he called "Animal life below the human scale," for it is in animal life that we can most readily grasp the source of the aesthetic. Unfettered by the many habits, conventions, and false dichotomies of human reason, the animal exists, in a state of constant engagement with the facts of the environment, weaving together seamlessly the past and future into the present moment. Thus this dissertation argues that by recognizing and embracing animal life as a vital and indispensable part of the human, these poets were, in a stereotypically modernist fashion, able to transcend the limits of culture and habit, redefining the very nature of experience. Healing the rift between the human and the animal allowed these poets to then articulate a poetics of aesthetic engagement as a model for transforming life and experience from the ground up.
Stars Indeed: The Celebrity Culture of Shakespeare's London
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Despite a recent boom of scholarly interest in the cultural, economic, and affective force of celebrity, critical inquiry remains peculiarly limited to the past century, with only a handful of accounts veering into questions of pre-film era celebrity and almost no discussion of the phenomenon's existence prior to the eighteenth century. Stars Indeed expands the putative historical parameters of celebrity to argue that a confluence of theatrical, economic, and social innovations in early modern London gave rise to a nascent celebrity culture that resonated profoundly through performance, print, market exchange, and social relations. As the theater became a stable, public forum for performance and the circulation of current information, the early modern player took on an increasingly visible and important cultural role, embodying and reflecting social innovations and tensions. Facilitated through the reciprocal dynamics between audience and actor in the playhouse, and perpetuated through the player's accessibility and commoditization in performance and print, the emergence of a celebrity culture empowered early modern Londoners with a democratic alternative to traditional discourses and icons of authority circumscribed by birthright. In four chapters, this dissertation explores the collaborative construction of the early modern celebrity in the theater, the circulation and appropriation of celebrity name and image in print media, the tensions between traditional modes of fame enjoyed through birthright and the emergent celebrity of popular performers, and finally, how Shakespeare's enduring and ever-evolving celebrity has colored popular and critical reception throughout the centuries. As celebrity remains a particularly immediate and ephemeral kind of fame, this dissertation illuminates the celebrity presence of notable players, including Tarlton, Alleyn, and Kempe, through careful analyses of these stars' appearances in contemporary ballads, commendatory verse, prose accounts, and staged performances, while also exploring the ways Shakespeare, Jonson, Marston, and other playwrights interrogated the mechanisms, implications, and impact of this developing theatrical phenomenon.