Graduate Center Study Finds that Men with Children Earned Highest Median Personal Income in New York City
NEW YORK, May 16, 2014 -- The Graduate Center, City University of New York Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies announced today a new study–The 'Mommy Tax' and 'Daddy Bonus': Parenthood and Income in New York City 1990–2010. The study finds that men with children earned higher personal incomes than any other group in New York City, including men without children and women with or without children between 1990 and 2010. In addition, the findings indicate that among New York City's total population, mothers earned substantially less than fathers between 1990 and 2010. Together, these findings suggest an enduring 'Daddy Bonus' and 'Mommy Tax' with regard to personal incomes.
"This finding was consistent for the total population, different age cohorts, all levels of educational attainment and occupations, major race/ethnic groups, and the five largest Latino national subgroups in New York City," said Justine Calcagno, author of the report and a Ph.D. candidate at the Graduate Center in social and personality psychology.
The 'Mommy Tax and the Daddy Bonus' report examines the relationship between parenthood, sex, and personal income in New York City between 1990 and 2010. It uses the American Community Survey PUMS (Public Use Microdata Series) released by the Census Bureau and reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa, (https://usa.ipums.org/usa/index.shtml).
"The data from this study also suggests that income disparities were surprisingly not connected to education or occupation," said Laird W. Bergad, a Distinguished Professor and executive director of CLACLS. "It appears that men with children have an overriding advantage to earn the highest personal income. For example, among the City's largest Latino subgroups (Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Colombians, Ecuadorians, and Dominicans), men with children earned higher median personal incomes than all other earners."
Calcagno and Bergad add that sex discrimination in the work force; gender segregation into occupations that differ in pay; and time away from work due to pregnancy could be factors in why women earn less money than men, particularly among parents. Census data for these factors is not available.
In 2010, among the City's total population, women with children earned 41 percent less than men with children in 2010 (See figure 1). This pattern held across employment status. Employed women with children earned 27 percent less than employed men with children, and unemployed women with children eared 43 percent less than unemployed men with children.
Men with children earned higher median personal incomes in each of the major New York City race/ethnic group between 1990 and 2010, compared to men without children and women with and without children in each respective group. Latina women with children earned 43 percent less than Latino men with children in 2010. Non-Hispanic white women with children earned 49 percent less than non-Hispanic white men with children in 2010. Non-Hispanic black women with children earned 29 percent less than non-Hispanic black men with children in 2010. Asian women with children earned 23 percent less than Asian men with children in 2010.
Among the five largest Latino national subgroups in New York City, without exceptions, men with children earned considerably higher personal income annually than all other Latinos between 1990 and 2010. In 2010, Mexican women with children earned 41 percent less than Mexican men with children; Puerto Rican women with children earned 51 percent less than Puerto Rican men with children; Colombian women with children earned 44 percent less than Colombian men with children; Ecuadorian women with children earned 40 percent less than Ecuadorian men with children; and Dominican women with children earned 41 percent less than Dominican men with children in 2010.
About the Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies
The Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies (CLACLS) promotes the study and understanding of Latin American and Caribbean cultures and the communities established in the United States, with a special focus on New York City, by peoples from this vast and extraordinarily diverse region. CLACLS researches and publishes innovative data-based studies focused upon New York City's and the nation's Latino communities, such as CLACLS' flagship Latino Data Project. The Latino Data Project provides the public with insights on various aspects of the New York City Latino experience.
About the Graduate Center, CUNY
The Graduate Center's (GC) mission is to prepare the next generation of scholars for careers in the academy, cultural institutions, and public service, to carry out advanced research and scholarship, and to increase public understanding of pressing matters of local and global significance. Approximately 4,500 students are enrolled in forty doctoral and master's programs, sustained by a wide range of financial support. Recognized for its scholarly leadership across the humanities, sciences, and social sciences, the GC is also a platform for influential public intellectuals, who, through the GC's public programs, inform and enliven debate, and enrich the cultural life of New York City.