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Joel Lefkowitz
Position: Professor Emeritus
Campus Affiliation: Baruch College
Degrees/Diplomas: Ph.D. in Psychology from Case Western Reserve University; M.S. in Psychology from Case Western Reserve University; B.B.A in Industrial Psychology from City College of New York
Training Area: Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Research Interests: Professional Ethics in Applied Psychology, Employee Selection, Employment discrimination

Professor Lefkowitz received his undergraduate (BBA) degree at Baruch College, where he returned to teach full time after receiving the PhD in Industrial-Organizational (I-O) psychology from Case Western Reserve University in 1965.  He was instrumental in starting CUNY’s doctoral program in I-O psychology (located at Baruch College) in 1982, and headed the program until he retired from full-time teaching and became Emeritus Professor in 2009.  He retains his association with the psychology department and the I-O doctoral program by teaching the required doctoral course in Ethics and serving on student Examination and Dissertation committees.

Dr. Lefkowitz is an elected Fellow of the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP), the American Psychological Association (APA—Divisions 9 and 14), and the Association for Psychological Science (APS).

His teaching and research interests have reflected the generalist tradition in I-O psychology, including work in both the “I” aspects of the field (human resources research and administration such as employee selection, test validation, performance appraisal and equal-employment opportunity issues) as well as the “O” (organizational social psychology such as the interpersonal aspects of supervision, the motivations of “non-traditional” or contingent workers, gender bias in the assessment and interpretation of employee job attitudes, and the antecedents of unethical behavior in organizations).

His interest in equal employment opportunity issues led to his being retained as an expert in Equal Employment Opportunity litigation by the U.S. Department of Justice, Department of Labor, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as well as private attorneys, in more than 50 cases of alleged employment discrimination against minorities, pay discrimination against women, and age discrimination.

In 2003 Dr. Lefkowitz published the first full-fledged text on ethics in the field, Ethics and Values in Industrial-Organizational Psychology. The book was very favorably reviewed and won the Abraham J. Briloff Prize in Ethics for 2003-04. The second edition of Ethics and Values in Industrial-Organizational Psychology was published in 2017. Recently, Dr. Lefkowitz’s interests have focused mostly on professional, ethical and values issues in I-O psychology, as reflected in his recent publications.


Awards and Grants

  • Elected Fellow of the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP), the American Psychological Association (Div. 9, Div. 14), and the Association for Psychological Science.
  • SIOP has endowed The Joel Lefkowitz Early Career Award in Humanistic Industrial-Organizational Psychology, to be awarded annually.

Professional Affiliations and Memberships

  • Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology, American Psychological Association, Association for Psychological Science
Courses Taught
  • Employee Selection
  • Organizational Psychology
  • Training and Training Evaluation
  • Professional, Ethical and Legal Issues for Psychologists


Lefkowitz, J. (In press.).  Forms of ethical dilemmas in Industrial-Organizational Psychology. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

Lefkowitz, J. (2017).  Ethics and Values in Industrial-Organizational Psychology, 2nd Ed.  New York: Taylor & Francis/Routledge, 603 pp.
Lefkowitz, J. (2019).  The conundrum of industrial-organizational psychology.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 12(4), 473-478.

Lefkowitz, J. & Lowman, R.L. (2017).  “Ethics of Employee Selection.” Ch. 26 in J.L. Farr & N.T. Tippins, (Eds.).  Handbook of Employee Selection, 2nd Ed..  New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 575-598. 

Lefkowitz, J. (2017).  The role of values in professional licensing: The resistance to regulation.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 10(2), (223-233).

Lefkowitz, J. (2016).  News flash!  Work psychology discovers workers!  Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 9(1), 137-143.

Lefkowitz, J. (2014).  Psychology departments versus business schools: Tempest in a teapot?  Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 7(3), 311-317.

Lefkowitz, J. (2014).  Educating I-O psychologists for science, practice and social responsibility.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 7(1), 41-46. 

Lefkowitz, J. (2013).  Values of I-O psychology, another example: What and whom we don’t study and what it all suggests about the profession. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 51(2), 46-56.

Lefkowitz, J. (2012).  The impact of practice values on our science. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 50(2), 16-22.

Lefkowitz, J. (2011).  Rating teachers illegally?  The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 48(4), 47-49.

Lowman, R.L. (Ed.), Lefkowitz, J., McIntyre, R. & Tippins, N. (Assoc. Eds.)  (2006). The Ethical Practice of Psychology in Organizations, 2nd Ed.  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association and Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology.

Lefkowitz, J. (2015).  “The maturation of a profession: A work psychology for the new millennium.” Ch. 18 in I. McWha, D.C. Maynard &  M. ONeill Berry (Eds.), Humanitarian work psychology and the global development agenda: Case studies and interventions.  Routledge Psychology Press.

Lefkowitz, J. (2013).  “Values and ethics of a changing I-O psychology: A call to (further) action.” Ch. 1 in J.B. Olson-Buchanan, L.L. Koppes Bryan & L.F.  Thompson (Eds.).  Using I-O psychology for the greater good: Helping those who help others.  Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Frontier Series, 13-42.

Lefkowitz, J. (2012).  “The morality of business: From humanitarian to humanistic work psychology.” Ch. 5 in S.C. Carr, M. MacLachlan & A. Furnham (Eds.), Humanitarian work psychology: Alignment, harmonization and cultural competence.  London, UK: MacMillan, 103-125.