International Fellows' Research

The International Fellows Program (IFP) provides emerging leaders, scholar-practitioners, as well as Third-Sector decision makers an opportunity to expand their knowledge of philanthropy and civil society through study and research. From 1989 through 2021, the program hosted 240 Fellows from 71 countries and territories, helping to build an international network of researchers and practitioners in the field.  For the first decade, the program's curriculum focused annually on a particular theme.  In 2000, community foundations and community philanthropy were introduced as topics for ongoing study, along with forays into diaspora (transnational) giving, and corporate social responsibility (CSR), social justice and other current trends. 

As community foundations and community philanthropy make up the bulk of the research focus, this category is arranged by country.  Abstracts and/or full text of selected Fellows' research are available below by clicking on the links.  Visit the "Other Research and Publications" and view under "International Fellows Program Published Research" for additional Fellows' research that was published by the Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society.

To learn more about the contributions of International Fellows Program alumni and their impact on the field, read the program's précisbrochure, and evaluation report.  See also the booklet "Spreading the Seeds of Community Giving" and case studies on the C.S. Mott Community Foundation Centenniel microsite.

Full versions of the papers below can be found below the abstracts or by requesting via email at cpcs@gc.cuny.edu.

COMMUNITY FOUNDATIONS / COMMUNITY PHILANTHROPY

Kostandina Këruti, 2020 Emerging Leaders International Fellow, Tirana

The role of community foundations in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

Abstract:
Community foundations worldwide are working to address immediate and long-term pressing issues within their communities. In light of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—which calls individuals, communities, and public and private institutions to action—community foundations are important players that fully embrace the concept of “leave no one behind”. This research paper intends to answer two key questions:
(i) Are community foundations embracing in their work the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) framework?
(ii) What is the role of community foundations in education and engagement of the local community to contribute to SDGs?

Kostandina Këruti - full text

Lusine Hakobyan, 2014 Senior Fellow, Yerevan

Community foundations: Challenges and opportunities in Armenia

Abstract:
Around the globe, the community foundation movement has proven itself to be increasingly dynamic, expanding both numerically and geographically. However, as Lusine Hakobyan demonstrates, community foundations have not yet taken root in Armenia principally because of the country’s political and historical context. Rather, after independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenian philanthropy has developed primarily within the context of non-governmental organizations which, unfortunately, are subject to both internal and external limitations on sustainability. This paper assesses both the challenges and opportunities for the development of community organizations in Armenia. Hakobyan analyzes current community-level organizations in Armenia, arguing that, while no single structure or organization exists to assume immediately the community foundation role, the critical components for successfully starting the project are there. Ultimately, Hakobyan recommends creating a framework upon which to capitalize on the existing strengths of civil society organizations, thus allowing for the establishment of community foundations that can link the needs of local populations with existing donor funds.

Florencia Roitstein, 2015 Senior Fellow, Buenos Aires

The role of women in building a new culture of giving in Argentina

Abstract:
Since the restoration of political democracy in Argentina almost thirty years ago, civil society organizations (CSOs) have grown increasingly weak due to the absence of efforts by women to re-shape a new democratic and participative philanthropic culture. In exploring this hypothesis, the Florencia Roitstein seeks to challenge the conventional wisdom in Argentinean society (and in so many others countries in the global South) that: a) philanthropy is only a matter of the rich giving to the poor; b) philanthropy is elitist; c) philanthropy is almost exclusively about money; d) philanthropy is a foreign concept; e) philanthropy is paternalistic and irrelevant for social transformation; and f) the role of women in philanthropy is about using their husband´s money for charity work.

Based on the assumptions mentioned above, Florencia reviews the innovative contributions of women globally to social development as philanthropists, particularly in women´s giving circles. In addition Florencia explores the viability and applicability of such innovations in the different and complex contexts of Latin America—Argentina in particular—so as to strengthen the participation of women in philanthropy in terms of more inclusiveness of generations and social sectors.


Andrés A. Thompson, 2005 Senior Fellow, Buenos Aires

Exploring the concept of “community foundations” and its adaptability to Latin America

Abstract:
Mr. Thompson, Program Director for Latin America and the Caribbean, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, begins his paper with three central questions: How can an external funder develop alternatives for the long-term sustainability of local development? How can funders move from leading a strategic alliance to a more institutionalized form of community philanthropy, participation and decision-making? And, based on the relative success of the US experience and the spread of the model internationally, is the community foundation concept adaptable to Latin America?

In order to explore the latter question, the paper analyzes the community foundation along a dichotomous axis via the “money approach” and the “community approach.” Among the characteristics defining the money approach, Thompson highlights: raising endowed funds from a collection of donors; investing foundation’s assets and monitoring its portfolio return; appointing trustees with influence in the richest segments of local society; and building assets for perpetuity.

Among the attributes he cites as part of the community approach are: building leadership capacity through convening, catalyzing, collaborating and facilitating community problem solving; building community assets and social capital; strengthening the local nonprofit sector and promoting community involvement in an array of issues, including governance.

Indirectly addressing the question whether CFs are a feasible concept for Latin America’s development, Thompson raises several points. First, he argues that the asset base that CFs attempt to build diverts resources from more pressing needs; second, citing social analysts from Brazil, he asserts that tax incentives are not sufficient to assure a consistent flow of private resources to support social projects; third, the notion of wealth should be thought not just in terms of economic assets but also in terms of social and human capital; fourth, citing several examples of alliance building, the paper emphasizes the key importance of the leadership role of community foundations; and fifth, in terms of its grantmaking issues of wealth redistribution, social justice, inclusion and citizenship should be incorporated as guiding principles in designing local grant-making strategies.

The paper proposes two main strategies: A short-term strategy, which would identify and respond to the most immediate needs of a community to gain initial respectability and visibility for the CF; and a long- term strategy to create a culture of giving by promoting vehicles like giving circles and youth development. In the end Thompson concludes by stating that, although the “money” and the “community” approaches should both be present during the building process, the more solid basis for their future sustainability is in their capacity to be responsive to the community’s needs, and that the primary aim of a community foundation should be to build the community assets and not just foundation assets.

Emily C. Fuller, 2014 Senior Fellow, Sydney

Unlocking the potential of Australian community foundations: Influencing a more locally responsive and effective allocation of resources

Abstract:
Community foundations inhabit a unique position as the voice of the local community. However, despite relevance to Australian circumstances, such an approach has as of yet remained largely unpursued. In this paper, Emily Fuller explores the international practices of community foundations, arguing that the community philanthropy model offers opportunities to more effectively impact the allocation of government and private resources. Rather than position asset building and community building as mutually exclusive functions of community foundations, Ms. Fuller demonstrates that being a community builder also builds assets.

In order to provide a set of tools and traits for future adaptation to Australian contexts, Ms. Fuller identifies and analyzes five unique roles played by community foundations: starting the hard conversations; keeping a finger on the community pulse; being a champion of local community organisations; being a grantmaking intermediary; and being the first responder. Ultimately, Ms. Fuller concludes, uniting around a common vision and strategy would provide Australian community foundations with a critical first step in realizing their potential, thus capturing the voice of the community, increasing local coordination and accountability, and influencing an improved response to local circumstances.
 

Emily C. Fuller - Full text

Sharon Nathani, 2013 Senior Fellow, Melbourne

Next steps for the Inner North Community Foundation

Abstract:
Successful, well-rounded community foundations are thought to perform three distinct functions: grantmaking, promoting philanthropy, and acting as community leaders. Sharon Nathani’s paper provides a case study of the Inner North Community Foundation in Melbourne, Australia, in order to consider how the foundation stacks up against this model, and to explore the means by which community foundations in urban areas can broaden their scope to more relevantly serve their constituents.

Rather than serve solely as a vehicle for donor-advised philanthropy, Ms. Nathani argues, the Inner North Community Foundation would do better to expand donor servics from its singular focus on creating pathways to employment and in so doing be in a position to promote social change and identify the direct needs of the community more broadly.

Ms. Nathani posits several methods for the Inner North Community Foundation to maximize its potential: emphasize the development of donor relationships, cultivate donor support, develop improved working relationships with local government, expand donor services, and more clearly articulate the benefits of named sub-funds. These methods, in turn, will allow the foundation to reach the next stage in its development by enhancing its reputation and ensuring its future sustainability, thus providing an applicable model for other urban community foundations at similar phases of organizational growth.


Marion Webster, 2003 Senior Fellow, Melbourne

Developing a strategy and range of tools to assist community foundations in the United Kingdom and Australia in building an endowment.

Abstract:
Marion Webster looks at the challenges of sustainability that community foundations face as they seek to promote civil society and improve the well-being of their communities, particularly in under-developed countries and small rural communities. She identifies two main approaches taken by community foundations—donor focused and community focused—that may affect the ways community foundations define and carry out their missions. Regardless of where a foundation chooses to position itself on this continuum, Marion Webster argues that a successful community foundation needs to develop a locally- raised permanent endowment (as ultimately this will give the foundation both independence and credibility). In addition to endowment size and the dollar value of its grantmaking, she identifies other measures of community foundation success, including, but not limited to:

  • establishing a high level of trust with both donors and grantees;
  • a Board reflective of the makeup of the community, and a CEO and staff that champion community needs;
  • the ability to add value to donors' gifts through knowledge of the community, research capabilities, and staff expertise;
  • evidence of a leadership and public convening role; and
  • an organization's ability to bring about positive social change within its community.

Ms. Webster also discusses the importance of building a culture of giving within one's community and finding new ways of working with professional advisors and commercial charitable gift funds. While arguing that clarity of mission and strategic planning will help many community foundations achieve sustainability over time, she raises concerns about the impact of those that fail upon the credibility of the community foundation concept as a whole.
 

Marion Webster - Full text

Snigdha Emelda Tigga, 2001 International Fellow, Dhaka

A feasibility study for building a community foundation in Bangladesh

Abstract:
Snigdha Emelda Tigga discusses the potential for community development foundations to address the issue of poverty in Bangladesh, as well as the challenges they face. She recommends several steps that might be taken to create an enabling environment for these foundations. Her suggestions include: changing attitudes, as well as fiscal policy; building partnerships among the sectors; mobilizing funds for operation and endowment building. She concludes that the Bangladesh Freedom Foundation, a local philanthropic organization, might play a role in promoting the community development foundation concept.

Myra Virgil, 2013 Senior Fellow, Hamilton

In pursuit of full potential: Contemporary narratives in the community foundation movement and their implications for emerging institutions

Abstract:
Myra Virgil explores developments in the community philanthropy movement and their consequences for nascent community foundations, particularly for jurisdictions like Bermuda where no similar entity exists. An inquiry into the contemporary debates on the core functions of community foundations and the consequences for their roles, sustainability, and assessing impact is also undertaken. A list of recommended readings is drawn, which can be used as a primer for Board and staff members of emerging community foundations and social capital markets.

The vast literature on community foundations makes learning about the field’s most contemporary developments a daunting task, especially for busy professionals and volunteers. Ms. Virgil surveys the seminal work and new knowledge about community foundations, and draws important conclusions for embryonic foundations in new markets. She finds that, as local and global communities have changed, so have the contours of the field and the possibilities for the community foundation vehicle. Although there are underlying tensions regarding the mission and values of community foundations, it is clear that emerging community foundations must pay critical attention to the strengths and challenges within each context. A fundamental role for community foundations of all types is to provide information and connect people with resources and needs across sectors, making sense of the wealth of existing and emerging resources. New community foundations need not sacrifice their core missions to become active leaders in their communities. While local conditions and ecologies certainly differ and will manifest in varied responsibilities for community foundations, unexplored and unanticipated opportunities will emerge by remaining nimble, creative, and community-driven.

Ms. Virgil concludes that community foundations must remain committed to well-established ideals of place-based philanthropy, i.e.honoring local identity, utilizing resources from the broader philanthropic community, and tailoring culturally-specific giving practices. However, remaining open to new ideas, adapting them into institutional practices, and aligning people and processes with emerging program models and paradigms, are key for the new community foundation at a time of transition in the movement.

Majda Ganibegovic, 2003 International Fellow, Sarajevo

Developing a viable concept for community foundations within Bosnia and Herzegovina’s civil society sector

Abstract:
Although Majda Ganibegovic suggests it is still early to establish an effective community foundation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, she sees a great deal of potential. As she explains, an effective community development/participation project could spur the development of a community foundation, particularly if it encompassed key stakeholders such as local NGOs, local government officials, and private businesspersons. These local stakeholders would anchor community development to existing resources, build a strong, locally influential consortium of implementation partners, and bring together community actors empowered to effect change on many levels. In the process, Bosnia and Herzegovina might avoid the pitfalls of dependency and create a sense of ownership of their development projects.


Jasna Jašarević, 2006 Senior Fellow, Tuzla

Building partnerships with donors and building long-term assets for community foundation Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Using US experiences and models developed by TCFN and other community foundation supporting organizations

Abstract:
In this paper, Jasna Jašarević aims to introduce the community foundation model to different audiences in Bosnia and Herzegovina—government representatives, civil society organizations, companies, charitable individuals, and the general public. The author views community foundations as vehicles with the potential to help the country and its local communities overcome existing problems of transition and lack of social capital through the promotion of local giving and community-based philanthropy.

Community Foundation Tuzla, the only promoter [in 2006] of the concept of community philanthropy in the region, faces a large challenge in seeking donations at the local level, whether from individuals or corporate donors, because there is still a strong distrust of and negative attitude towards the work of non-profit organizations. Yet the author’s research highlights the significance of local resources for organizational sustainability.

Largely an operating foundation with international support, Community Foundation Tuzla looks to develop a strategy for building its capacities beyond that of demonstrating leadership and serving in a convening role in facing community problems. In particular, the author identifies the importance of professionalizing its program of grantmaking to non-profit organizations and groups in the Tuzla region. As Executive Director at Community Foundation Tuzla, Ms. Jašarević argues that it is the foundation’s task to become a fundraiser for community benefit, a collector of various kinds of donations from a wide range of donors (individual and corporate) in order to build community funds to be used to tackle major community issues.

Mariana de Góes Borges, 2021 Senior Fellow, Brasilia

Impact business model: Reaching for sustainability for nonprofits and community foundations in Brazil

[Abstract] [Full text]


Anderson Giovani Da Silva, 2009 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Florianopolis

Brazilian community foundations as vehicles for philanthropy:  Strategies to engage small and non-traditional donors

Abstract:
Community foundations are a relatively recent phenomenon for Brazil. An important challenge for these organizations has been to channel local financial resources to build endowments or permanent funds, in light of the fact that local donors and NGOs are not familiar with the activities of the Brazilian third sector.

In this paper, Anderson Giovani da Silva explores strategies to engage non-traditional donors in giving small amounts of money through community foundations. Da Silva provides an overview of the legal framework of the Brazilian third sector, including the distinction made by the Civil Code between associations and foundations, and how these laws have shaped philanthropic giving in the country. He analyzes the operations of Brazilian community foundations for the last decade, with an eye toward the role that international organizations have played in the financial sustainability of Brazilian foundations.

The success of stimulating small donor giving by foundations in other countries is also discussed, including the Fondazione Cariplo of Italy and the Togliatti Community Foundation in Russia. Drawing on these case studies, Da Silva recommends a series of strategies with the aim of shifting the donor base of Brazilian community foundations to smaller local gifts. These proposals include partnering with local businesses and service organizations, instituting matching grants to provide incentives to giving, mass media campaigns, and periodic events to distribute information to potential donors.


Helena Monteiro, 2006 Senior Fellow, Sao Paulo

Business in the community:  The role of corporations in supporting community philanthropy

Abstract:
Helena Monteiro examines the ways that corporations can utilize their extensive resources to strategically match community needs for the benefit of all involved. She focuses her study on corporate collaboration with Community Philanthropy Organizations in Brazil.

Community Philanthropy Organizations (CPOs) are independent non-governmental nonprofit organizations designed to convene, connect and facilitate collaboration across sectors. As conveners and brokers, CPOs work to create a culture of local philanthropy, facilitate local development and sustainable social change. Ms. Monteiro explains that CPOs function in Brazil as quasi-community foundations (without the grantmaking component).

CPOs offer an enormous opportunity for corporate philanthropy because they:

  • offer broad knowledge and expertise on community issues and opportunities;
  • promote and facilitate social support networks and intersectoral collaboration;
  • are an autonomous and independent player in the community; and
  • offer accountability.

The challenges posed by business-nonprofit collaboration are based in part on stereotypes about the will of business and the ability of civil society organizations to address social problems. By working together to develop strategic alliances, both partners can address local needs while contributing to the development of Brazil’s nonprofit sector. This entails developing CPO-business relationships that go beyond donations and/or grants. Ms. Monteiro emphasizes the benefit of helping corporations develop a cohesive philanthropic strategy, and lists a variety of mechanisms for corporate giving, including cash contributions in the form of grants and donations, employee volunteerism, technical skills and technology.


Mariane Maier Nunes, 2017 International Fellow on Community Philanthropy, Florianopolis

New narratives and practices for strengthening community philanthropy: A comparative study from the perspective of a community foundation in Brazil

[Abstract] [Full text]

 


Ana Paula Borges Pinho, 2014 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Sao Paulo

Community philanthropy – the missing link between local communities and international development

Abstract:
This paper is based on the premise that local populations’ engagement in development processes is a key factor to increase chances of long lasting success. In this context, we present collaboration with community philanthropy organizations as a viable strategy for international development organizations to engage civil society in the advancement and sustainability of development goals. This is done by presenting an overview of the development sector, as well as the added-value of community philanthropy. Then practical lessons and challenges are drawn from stories of different community philanthropy and international development organizations that have experience working together.
 

Ana Paula Borges Pinho - Full text

Maria Carolina Trevisan, 2007 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Sao Paulo

Communications as a tool for building transparency, trust and sustainability in community foundations

Abstract:
This paper defines community foundations as public grantmaking organizations that seek to improve the quality of life of a population in a specific geographic area. Based on this concept, Ms. Trevisan explores how communications can be most effectively employed to help community foundations achieve their goals, deal with challenges and increase the effectiveness of their impact. This study examines how these tools can help community foundations to build trust through transparency and accountability, and ultimately to achieve sustainability. The author also suggests that such tools can be used to help strengthen understanding of the community foundation concept, reinforce identity, build relationships and demonstrate impact.

Vital characteristics of effective communication tools include:

  • Outlining concepts, meanings, steps and goals;
  • Offering examples of best practices;
  • Providing sources for further information;
  • Writing in clear and direct language;
  • Making information easily accessible both online and through concisely printed brochures or pamphlets.

Ms. Trevisan explains that community foundations issue publications and annual reports and maintain websites at a higher rate than other types of foundations, and that communication is driven by competition in the sector. Because community foundations are guardians of community resources, she argues that they need to operate openly and keep donors, potential donors, grantees and community representatives alike informed of their actions, programs and impacts. In conclusion, communication is particularly important to community foundations because of their unique position, qualities and roles in their communities.

Monika Nedelcheva Pisankaneva-Zlateva, 2009 Senior Fellow, Sofia

The changing roles of community foundations in time of crisis

Abstract:
In this paper, Monika Pisankaneva analyzes the impact of the financial crisis of 2008-09 on community foundations. Unlike private foundations, community foundations receive their income from a range of local donors, which can ensure flexibility in situations of decreased income from one specific source. Pisankaneva seeks to identify the impact of the current economic crisis on community foundations’ grantmaking and non-grantmaking roles.

The global financial and economic crisis of 2008-09 triggered an increased engagement of some community foundations with non-grantmaking roles, which enabled them to fulfill more effectively their primary role as supporters of the third sector in their communities. This paper draws on research from the Council on Foundations (USA), the Foundation Center (USA), the TCC Group (USA), and Alliance Magazine (UK), and on survey responses to a structured questionnaire from ten community foundation practitioners representing ten different countries. Survey results indicate most responding organizations succeeded in attracting more funding in 2009 than the previous year. Moreover, many respondents felt that the crisis internally strengthened their community foundations by inspiring new levels of creative thinking in order to remain effective during the crisis. Pisankaneva concludes that many organizations were able to mitigate the effects of the financial crisis on their service delivery, through deep community level involvement and working to attract new donors.
 

Ndzinwa Julius Bantar, 2014 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Bamenda

Perspectives on the role of community foundations in community development:  A step to introducing the concept in West and Central Africa - Case of Cameroon

Abstract:
Following a decline in funding to local NGOs, that is attributable in part to the economic recession in the 90s and shifting priorities of international donors, communities are challenged to look for alternative sources of funding for their own development. In this situation, Ndzinwa Julius Bantar uses the civil society landscape of Cameroon as an example to demonstrate the public perception of NGOs as corrupt, and how this view is affecting the public’s ability to mobilize local resources to continue working on uncompleted projects and meet the needs of their communities. The author examines the role of community foundations (CFs) as an alternative philanthropy model in a society where NGOs are suspect and described by many as “public stand taps with outlets in individual dwellings, solely controlled with selfish motives”. Ndzinwa Julius Bantar forms the initial hypothesis that community foundations are suitable models and effective vehicles for local philanthropy and development which can conveniently address the shortcomings of NGOs and, build trust in the community.

Looking at cases from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, South Africa and Kenya, among others, the author examines this development role of community foundations vis-a-vis their key functions of grantmaking, donor services, community leadership, and promotion of youth philanthropy. As a stride to introducing community foundations in Cameroon and other parts of West and Central Africa where the CF movement is unfamiliar, the author looks at the comparative advantage of CFs over other nonprofits and provides steps for their creation. The paper concludes with key recommendations for emerging as well as fully established CFs, and a challenge to initiators of CFs to study and adapt them to their local environment rather than to simply copy and paste models from the US where they originated.

Sharon Dale Charters, 2010 Senior Fellow, Hamilton, Ontario

“A mile wide and an inch deep” – A foundation’s journey to more strategic grantmaking

Abstract:
Hamilton Community Foundation is the first Canadian foundation to commit its unrestricted funding to one issue – poverty. In this paper, Sharon Charters offers a case study of the foundation’s Tackling Poverty Together (TPT II) initiative. TPT II was designed to address the “geography of poverty” by providing grants and support to neighborhood hubs established in eight economically impoverished neighborhoods. The case study provides background on how the foundation reached the decision to focus its grant making and leadership activities in a strategic way to address poverty.

The paper includes recommendations, both specifically for the Hamilton Community Foundation and for other foundations which may be interested in developing a neighborhood focused granting model. Areas of discussion include the need for organic structure, multilevel strategy, and extensive community organizing.


Joanna Catherine Fultz, 2015 Senior Fellow, Winnipeg, Manitoba

Young adult community engagement: A challenge for today’s community foundations

Abstract:
Over the past 20 years, Community Foundations across North America and internationally have invested heavily in developing and implementing Youth in Philanthropy programmes and related youth- engagement initiatives. Up to this point in time, the majority engaged have been members of the Millennial generation: those born between 1982 and 2003.

The New Wave examines how, in an era of great generational shifts, reconnecting with program alumni and engaging the Millennial generation more broadly, is beneficial from community strengthening, donor engagement, and grantmaking perspectives.

This position paper documents the history of youth programming at community foundations, with a focus on North American trends. Global initiatives are also discussed. A wide range of existing research on the characteristics of the generation is compiled and highlighted, including: civic-mindedness; the impact of globalization; diversity; intercultural competency; intergenerational transfer of wealth; struggle for financial independence; digital interconnectedness; institutional trust levels; and giving motivations and behaviors. This evolving character profile is applied to the current work of community foundations to build recommendations for creating inclusive, authentic, and relevant platforms for re/engagement with the group.

Recommendations outline the role foundations can play as vehicles for Millennial-specific engagement in a community-strengthening and donor capacity, including: the development of alumni and intergenerational donor engagement strategies; investigating community partnerships for social enterprise; investing in asset-based giving platforms; and adapting technology to encourage democratized philanthropy.
 

Joanna Catherine Fultz - Full text

Nancy Johnson, 2003 Senior Fellow, Puslinch, Ontario

Exploration of diversity and inclusion in community foundation governance in the US and Canada

Abstract:
Explaining that “one of the great challenges facing not-for-profit agencies today is to fully reflect the diversity of their communities,” Nancy Johnson examines efforts to address this challenge in the US and Canada. She makes the case that diversity is of particular relevance to community foundations, pointing out that in Canada such foundations have “defined a 'special role' for themselves as representatives of the whole community.” Serious initiatives in the US to address the issue of diversity have contributed to the knowledge of diversity practices and tools in the field as reflected in changes in many individual community foundations. Overall, however, progress to increase diversity of community foundation governance, outreach, grantmaking and fund development over the last decade has been disappointing throughout North America. Further progress will require incorporating diversity issues into all aspects of foundation life—from grantmaking priorities to governance profiles, from the choice of vendors to selection of investment vehicles. Ms. Johnson concludes that unless strides are made to better reflect the age, ethnicity, gender, and racial diversity of communities, economic prosperity and social vitality will suffer, accompanied in all likelihood by increased support for ethno-specific funds established outside community foundations.


Jennifer Litchfield, 2010 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Winnipeg, Manitoba 

Strengthening donors, strengthening community:  Community foundations and donor advised grantmaking

Abstract:
Donor Advised Funds have become the most popular charitable giving vehicle in the United States. All Donor Advised Funds share the criterion of involvement by the donor in recommending where donated money is directed for charitable purposes. Such an approach offers the chance for direct community involvement, yet raises challenges about measuring efficacy. How can community foundations best assess the effectiveness of Donor Advised Funds at strengthening communities?

In this paper, Jennifer Litchfield reviews the laws and practices governing Donor Advised Funds in the United States and several other countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom. She recommends that Donor Advised Funds adopt a learning culture approach, pooling information and constant analysis in order to better evaluate how such funds are spent. The Greater Milwaukee Foundation is used as a case study of an organization that has revamped its evaluative system toward measuring service impact, a model that Litchfield recommends that other organizations investigate. Litchfield also analyzes the positive benefits of technology and community member leadership in measuring the impact of Donor Advised Funds.


LuAnn Lovlin, 2008 Senior Fellow, Winnipeg, Manitoba

Connecting community foundations

Abstract:
Author LuAnn Lovlin posits that building global networks of community foundations is essential both for the sharing of ideas and promoting a positive image of foundations. In this paper, Lovlin examines the variety of current and historic links amongst community foundations and suggests how such networks of communication and marketing can be improved upon .Lovlin looks at both national and international cases, including Community Foundations of Canada and the Council on Foundations in Washington DC. From such examples, Lovlin draws several recommendations. These include cooperation on the part of community foundations to synchronize marketing activities, thereby promoting a global brand identity for all community foundations. She also suggests that a central website be established to serve as a portal of communication for community foundations worldwide, and that such a site be run by an independent staff distinct from any particular community foundation.
 

LuAnn Lovlin - Full text

Megan Tate, 2004 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Winnipeg, Manitoba

Youth in philanthropy: Youth civic engagement through the work of community foundations.

Abstract:
Maintaining that engaged citizens create healthy neighborhoods, cities, and nations, Megan Tate's paper examines how community foundations can encourage volunteering and philanthropic activities among young people.

Ms. Tate indicates that community foundations are taking a lead role in the Youth in movement that is flourishing in Canada and the United States, and emerging internationally. Her paper explores three models of Youth in Philanthropy initiatives: those at the Michigan Community Foundation, the Vancouver Foundation, and The Winnipeg Foundation.

Ms. Tate suggests that community foundations can strengthen their Youth in Philanthropy initiatives by:

  • Incorporating Youth Advisory Committee contributions to community foundations, particularly since young people have specific ideas on how they would like to be engaged and want to be part of the decision-making process;
  • Encouraging diversity among program participants;
  • Finding ways to keep young people engaged after they have graduated from Youth in Philanthropy.

Fang Hui, 2011 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Shanghai

Community leadership: Best practices from community foundations and applicability to Chinese third sector development

Abstract:
China is experiencing rapid growth both economically and socially. Being the second biggest economy in the world and having elevated 300 million people out of poverty in the past three decades, China struggles with pressing social issues. As a result, the Chinese third sector faces unprecedented challenges.

While the Chinese third sector is challenged by increasing social issues, there is also a world of opportunities for the third sector to grow and develop. There is increasing civic engagement in Chinese society, and the government is recognizing new roles of the third sector and opening up space for voluntary associations’ existence and growth. In this paper, Hui Fang explores how China might build a stronger third sector. Her investigation serves as a primer about the role and strategies of community foundations.

Community foundations have proven to be an effective philanthropic model in community development and in tackling social issues across North America and other parts of the globe. Hui Fang investigates how community foundations take on leadership roles in a variety of social issues. Her case studies range from the South Korean Beautiful Foundation to Vietnam’s LIN Center for Community Development to the Florida based Dade Community Foundation. From such comparisons, Hui Fang proposes a series of reforms that could help Chinese third sector organizations adapt successful financial, service, and legal practices to new contexts.
 

Fang Hui - Full text

Suzy (Qian) Li, 2003 International Fellow, Beijing

Community foundations as a model for building a stronger and more sustainable nonprofit sector in China

Abstract:
Suzy Li addresses the question of how to make the Chinese nonprofit sector more strategic and sustainable in the face of high levels of governmental control and cultural and legal definitions that constrain nonprofit organizations and foundations. Ms. Li contends that within China's legal environment the most attractive attributes of community foundations are their potential for developing social capital and their ability to help professionalize existing forms of local philanthropy and promote long-term solutions. Ms. Li suggests that a starting strategy for the Chinese nonprofit sector is to develop existing community- based organizations and/or to increase their effectiveness and independence. She also recommends working with China's existing intermediate organizations (e.g. China Development Brief and China NPO Network) to lay the groundwork for the creation of community foundations. Local government support for a pilot project on community foundations is also plausible in light of recent efforts by the Ministry of Civil Affairs to encourage community participation in social welfare provision.


Angela Wing Kong Seng, 2007 Emerging Leaders Fellow, North Point, Hong Kong

Chinese family foundations in New York today and the conditions for community foundations in China

Abstract:
The 2000 census reported an increasingly educated and affluent Chinese-American population. This has raised the giving ability of the community as a whole, and the growth of a range of philanthropic activities. Chinese family foundations are active players in this field.

In her paper, Ms. Seng focuses on Chinese family foundations in the state of New York. She analyzes their patterns of giving; assesses their awareness of various giving vehicles, in particular community foundations and donor-advised-funds; and explores possibilities for establishing a network among the foundations for information sharing.

The author also examines the current legal and socio-economic conditions in China and Hong Kong for the promotion of community foundations. Although China has yet to establish its first community foundation, she identifies organizations in the country that provide some of the services of a community foundation. She explains that while the community foundation paradigm has shown itself to be apt for encouraging philanthropic giving and overcoming some major hindrances in developing the non-profit sector, there are concerns in China about establishing community foundations under the current legal structure.

Ms. Seng also documents the first attempt to establish a community foundation in Hong Kong, describes the reasons for its failure, and explores the possibilities for the future philanthropic landscape. She describes ways that those outside China might help facilitate “a smoother process” in starting and running a community foundation in Hong Kong.

Angela Calvo-Linares, 2000 International Fellow, Bogota

A manual to help the business sector support and develop community foundations in Colombia

Abstract:
Colombia is facing its worst crisis since the violence of the 1940s. In her study, Angela Calvo Linares argues that community foundations can mitigate some of the effects of dislocation as well as lay the groundwork for a sustained effort to strengthen civil society by helping nonprofits develop social programs, mobilizing resources, and promoting cross-sector collaboration. In her conclusion, Calvo Linares writes, “Community foundations not only promote democracy, and social and economic development, they promote values and practices that constitute an essential ingredient in the reconstruction of the fabric of society and the construction of the peace.”

Petra Krystiánová, 2013 Senior Fellow, Prague

Major donors and the development of philanthropy

Abstract:
Until World War II, Czech society relied upon a longstanding tradition of individual philanthropy. Wartime disruption and the Communist regime that followed dealt a heavy blow to the country’s philanthropic environment, making it difficult to promote a culture of giving or develop civil society. Petra Krystiánová highlights the need for a revival of the Czech Republic’s prewar philanthropic practices, emphasizing shifts in the legal environment that promote the growth of individual philanthropy. However, as Ms.

Krystiánová posits, this process is hindered by a lack of available information regarding local non- governmental organizations and a perception that existing foundations are ineffective or untrustworthy. This paper draws parallels between the environment of philanthropy in the Czech Republic and the model provided by the United States in order to posit strategies for encouraging donor contributions. Examples of US philanthropic organizations offer a wealth of information regarding best practices and implementation that can aid in reinvigorating Czech individual philanthropy and increase donor support for local organizations. Ultimately, Ms. Krystiánová argues, all necessary indicators demonstrate the present as an excellent time to begin developing local philanthropy.


Kristyna Pichova, 2002 International Fellow, Prague

Czech-American philanthropy and the potential of Czech community foundations to serve as a magnet for diaspora philanthropy

Abstract:
Set against the background of the Czech Republic 's transition from a communist system to a democratic one, the research considers new sources of funding to support the country's developing nonprofit sector. Although still young, the Czech-nonprofit sector plays an important role in free market development with democracy and civil society. Because individual giving and corporate philanthropy are not well developed, and government sources favor supporting the “old type,” state-founded institutions, Czech funders and NGOs are trying to address and attract new donors. Apart from encouraging corporate and individual giving in the Czech Republic, the Czech diaspora appears as a potential new source of funding for the young Czech civic sector.

Suggesting that in a modem globalized and electronically-connected world community need not always be geographically defined, the paper examines the potential of community foundations to encourage and channel diaspora giving. While keeping in mind the challenges associated with the highly assimilated Czech American communities, Ms. Pichova documents several examples of North American community foundations engaged in or forming partnerships likely to facilitate diaspora philanthropy. She concludes that there is great potential in linking regions in the Czech with regions in the US based on existing community foundations and/or Sister City relations in order to foster stronger ties between the Czech Republic and the communities in the US to which Czechs immigrated.

Alejandra Gómez Andrade, 2008 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Quito

Strengthening community and institutionalized philanthropy in Ecuador

Abstract:
In this paper, Alejandra Gómez asks whether the concept of community foundations can be adapted to Ecuador´s social, political and economic context. Gómez outlines the characteristics and work of civil society organizations in Ecuador, the legislation that pertains to them and the relationship between civil society and the private and government sectors. Additionally, Gómez considers international models of community philanthropy that have been successful in societies where legal, cultural and economic contexts presented considerable challenges to community foundations. Gomez’s case studies range from the Slovakian Presov Community Foundation to the Kenyan Community Development Foundation. Latin American experiences in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Mexico have been included for comparison with Ecuador.

Drawing from the case studies presented, Gómez recommends a series of steps for community foundations in Ecuador, including strengthening local community assets, revitalizing cultural traditions of philanthropy and private giving, collaborating with the private, government and civil society sector, and recruiting diverse key community members to empower local identity within a foundation.

Heba Abou Shnief, 2014 Senior Fellow, Cairo

The changing political economy of community philanthropy in the Middle East and North Africa: Are community philanthropy organizations emerging as winners or losers in the wake of the Arab transitions?

Abstract:
Heba Abou Shnief’s research considers the relationship between community philanthropic organizations and government in the immediate aftermath of the Arab Spring. Specifically, Abou Schnief periodizes political change in both Egypt and Tunisia beginning in early 2011until mid-2014. The author compares the Egyptian and Tunisian experiences against a backdrop of philanthropic attempts globally and historically to foster community in greatly divided localities. The author then proceeds to suggest potentially useful adaptations designed to insulate the existing community-building programs from drastic socio-political changes.

Abou Shnief chiefly identifies difficulties in regulating community philanthropy after the Arab Spring given the fierce competition between the forces of secular government and political Islam. Because most philanthropic aid in Egypt and Tunisia originated from religious organizations and political Islam carried with its religious giving a distinct political platform, Egyptian courts restricted and froze the assets of many organizations for their “links” with the Muslim Brotherhood. Consequently, private sector donors felt the need to carefully consider donations for fear of potential political fallout and millions of dependent beneficiaries suffered. The author argues that in Tunisia, oversight continued in a far less confrontational manner because the military was less powerful and politicized yet had a longer and more firmly established history of consensus-building political decision-making.

In light of these circumstances, Abou Shnief recommends that foundations self-regulate by clearly defining and distinguishing between political and philanthropic activity (and the activity of its members). Transparent internal charters and careful monitoring of foreign funds are ways in which philanthropic organizations might facilitate a beneficial maturity of law and policy.


Mahi Khallaf, 2008 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Cairo

Community foundations as a vehicle for institutionalizing corporate philanthropy in Egypt’s new cities: A case study of 10th of Ramadan City

Abstract:
In this paper, Mahi Khallaf explores the possibility of launching a grantmaking community foundation that is largely, but not solely, funded by the corporate sector in the 10th of Ramadan City near Cairo, in Egypt. The 10th of Ramadan City is an ideal geographic area for a grantmaking community foundation in Egypt as it is an industrial city with a high concentration of high-net worth individuals who are already actively practicing corporate philanthropy in the form of ad-hoc and personal charitable activities such as building mosques, orphanages, and clinics. These initiatives are in most cases triggered by the business owners' altruistic inclinations rather than institutionalized corporate philanthropy practices.

For this paper, Khallaff carried out a review of existing data about community foundations worldwide. Key interviews were also carried out in Egypt with investors and members of the 10th of Ramadan Investors Association to get their feedback about the community foundation concept and its applicability in 10th of Ramadan City. An additional set of key informant interviews were also carried out with community foundation leaders and experts from the USA, Russia, Mexico, Kuwait and Brazil. This paper is a first attempt at putting forward a road map for the establishment of a grant-making endowed community foundation in the 10th Ramadan City.

Bernadette Hellmann, 2010 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Berlin

The challenge of sustainability—How German community foundations can strengthen their financial and organizational stability

Abstract:
Since the first community foundation was established in Germany in 1996, community foundations have become the fastest growing form of philanthropic giving in Germany. However, a lack of financial and organizational stability has plagued these foundations.

Using a comparative approach, in this paper Bernadette Hellmann explores how German community philanthropy can better increase their permanent endowments and operating budgets. Hellmann draws on case studies from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The analysis of case studies includes how organizations like the Long Island Community Foundation form long-term partnerships with businesses, governments, and other nonprofits, and how others like the Community Foundation of Ottawa in Canada structure giving policies in order to best build relationships with donors. Hellmann recommends a series of proposals that could help Germany’s community foundations, including greater strategic planning of resources, capacity building of boards of directors, cultivating relationships with donors, and pricing incentives to achieve long-term objectives.
 

Bernadette Hellmann - Full text

Felicitas von Peter, 2002 International Fellow, Gutersloh

Changing the Way We Do Business—Community foundations and the competition for charitable assets

Abstract:
This research is set against the backdrop of changing socioeconomic developments in the last decade, especially the technology boom in the 1990s. Economic growth has fueled an expansion of philanthropic giving. However, increased giving has generated two particular challenges for community foundations: new donors require a more intense level of donor involvement; and from the new national donor advised funds (NDAFs) offered by financial institutions. Although community foundations have offered donor- advised funds since the late 1970s, it was the entrance of commercial institutions like Fidelity Investment into the field in 1992 that have helped make donor-advised funds one of the most popular giving vehicles for charity. The success of NDAFs has taken community foundations by surprise and provided some with a rather harsh wake-up call. In her research, Ms. von Peter investigates how community foundations are facing the challenges presented by NDAFs, and how they differ in their approach to donors, the types of services they provide, and their role within the community. She argues that the new entrants from the for- profit sector can ultimately result in strengthening the nonprofit sector by forcing community foundations to reposition themselves and focus on developing their role as intermediaries between donors and the community. The research also shows how some financial institutions like Merrill Lynch have come to a “working agreement” with community foundations. This leads the author to suggest that donor-advised funds could link the for-profit and the non-profit sectors, ultimately resulting in increased philanthropic funds for the community.

Habib Haruna, 2020 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Tamale, Northern Region

Adaptable models for the growth of emerging community foundations in Africa

[Abstract] [Full text]

Vassilis Goulandris, 2005 Senior Fellow, Athens

E-Democratising philanthropy: A proposal for the repositioning of community foundations

Abstract:
The paper re-examines, challenges and attempts to re-focus the founding assumptions of community foundations (CFs), especially in the wake of the new information society era. Mr. Goulandris, General Manager, access2democracy, takes the position that with few exceptions, community foundations have not adequately addressed the challenges of the democratization of the public space brought by the internet, where citizens, civil society organizations (CSOs) and communities are self-organized and most importantly self-defined. He goes on to argue that these changes demand a total rethinking of the way citizen engagement is approached and how CSOs impact the issue of governance.

The paper proposes that CFs, due to their unique function and structure, can and should become “communication hubs” for the communities they serve. This is particularly appropriate because the idea of community foundations rests on a fundamental premise of consensus building and “multi-stakeholder” cooperation across a defined sphere of influence. Mr. Goulandris argues that if CFs utilize this enhanced communication function, they can advance the e-democracy paradigm and help reconnect citizens and communities, democratize the way decision-making is practiced and further transparency and accountability of various institutions.

In its conclusion the paper argues that e-democracy challenges the nature and function of CFs and urges foundation leaders to “think out of the box,” which will help invigorate their institutions to meet contemporary challenges.

Priya Anand, 2003 International Fellow, Bangalore

Hindu diaspora and religious philanthropy in the United States

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Niloy Banerjee, 2002 International Fellow, New Delhi

Community foundations and their missions—Looking at professional affiliation as a basis for foundation development and community action

Abstract:
Niloy's research begins with the idea that current definitions of 'community' are in a state of evolution; communities are no longer merely confined to the notion of a neighborhood, family or friends, but are increasingly being defined by a commonality of interests. In India, Mr. Banerjee argues, the new community of shared interests provides an historic opportunity for the development of community foundations. Professional communities represent an opportunity for channeling local philanthropy into areas where it is needed most—bringing entitlements and rights to the underprivileged. The merchant community provides such a group.

Also important is the governance and management of community foundations. Accordingly, Mr. Banerjee looks closely at US foundations to glean elements that are relevant to India. While no single western model provides a replicable template, his study offers a set of issues that suggest scope, size, nature, and character of such an effort in India. For example, he points out that to succeed, a new community foundation must have flexibility to work on a broad range of issues reflecting both donor and community interests and that in the absence of existing regulatory bodies there is a need to build disclosure norms into the charters of the proposed new Indian community foundations.


Bhavna Ramrakhiani, 2000 International Fellow, Ahmedabad

Why multinational corporations give, how this might translate to the Indian setting, and how a community foundation might be structured in Gujarat

Abstract:
In the context of increasing wealth and widening income disparities between rich and poor caused by globalization, Bhavna Ramrakhiani's paper examines how the business sector, individual citizens, and NGOs can work together to improve the lives of the underprivileged in Gujarat, India. She identifies three tools that are necessary: capacity building in both the business and nonprofit sectors; collaboration; and voluntarism. The vehicle she sees as best suited to conduct this work is a modified community foundation, which, in the initial phase, would generate revenue through capacity-building training and then seek to build endowments.


Partha P. Rudra, 2005 Senior Fellow, New Delhi

Adapting the concept of community foundation to the Indian situation

Abstract:
The paper explores emerging opportunities for deepening social democracy and social justice work, together with a proposed rationale for adaptation and viability of the community foundation concept in India.

In his paper, Partha Rudra, Director (Programs), National Foundation for India, begins with the understanding that although it may have originated in the United States, community foundations now constitute a global movement with a wide variety of forms, and structures. In examining the US model, he argues that community foundations in the United States have played a useful role in serving the disadvantaged at the local level, while building endowments from individual donations, bequests and corporate donations.

Using this example, Rudra argues that India needs to establish many community foundations or community foundation-like organizations to accelerate the process of economic development and strengthen social justice. Like their counterparts in the US, Rudra argues that community foundations in India have to play a strategic role in mobilizing people, raising resources from diverse donors, bridging gaps in local programs, promoting institution building and serving as nodal point for multi-sectoral partnership. With a mature civil society sector, a favorable legal and fiscal climate, and a rich body of work that has already strengthened community-level institutions, the paper argues that the community foundation movement in India has a strong base on which to build.


Pradeepta Kumar Nayak, 2013 Senior Fellow, New Delhi

Strengthening place-based philanthropy and foundations in India

Abstract:
Philanthropy can—and often does—play a pivotal role in individual, regional, and national development. At its most successful, community philanthropy possesses the ability to affect change at the local level by reducing dependence, increasing self-sufficiency, and encouraging civic participation. India’s enormous population, particularly those from rural areas and of low socioeconomic status, would benefit enormously from community philanthropy; however, as this paper reveals, civil society organizations in India have not, as of yet, taken sufficient steps to promote this model.

Pradeepta Kumar Nayak sees community foundations as a viable tool to combat increasing inequality and he explores methods by which place-based philanthropy can be encouraged, including readings, seminars, meetings, and conversations. By studying other successful international community philanthropy models, including the Brooklyn Community Foundation (BCF), Community Investment Network (CIN), Kenya Community Development Foundation (KCDF), Community Foundation for South Sinai (CFSS), and Nebraska Community Foundation (NCF), Mr. Nayak delineates strategies he sees as suitable for promoting the growth of community philanthropy within the Indian subcontinent. Ultimately, through what Mr. Nayak terms “peace-based development,” such community organizations will encourage local advancement and engagement by focusing directly on the needs of the communities they serve.

Amelia Fauzia, 2009 Senior Fellow, Jakarta

Community foundations in Indonesia:  Strategies towards their development in a faith-based context

Abstract:
Community foundations are gaining importance globally due to their ability to facilitate social change through grants. Many philanthropy organizations in the US retain their faith-based identity, although US legal definitions of community foundations support non-sectarianism. In her paper Amelia Fauzia explores community foundations within a faith-based context in order to find strategies for developing such foundations in Indonesia. She questions how community foundations deal with faith-based communities; if and how community foundations have adapted to faith-based giving and traditions, and what strategies can be used to integrate traditional faith-based philanthropy into the wider world of community foundations.

This research is qualitative, employing four case studies of community foundations or community foundation-like organizations including the Jewish Community Foundation of San Diego and the Maadi Waqfiyat of Egypt. The paper proposes two distinct strategies for developing community foundations in Indonesia, the first for those with non-faith affiliation and the second for faith-based organizations. The second strategy is aimed toward transforming community-based Islamic philanthropic organizations in Indonesia into community foundations. Fauzia concludes her paper by recommending that Indonesia adopt regulations and incentives to promote the development of both faith-based and secular community foundations.

Vittoria Burton, 2018 Senior International Fellow, Ivrea

The quest for resources—A road map for new community foundations in Italy: Mobilising, attracting, creating wealth in and with the community

Abstract:
Vittoria Burton aims to outline some of the many possible paths available to a newly founded community foundation that is without economic independence and grantmaking sustainability. The objective of these paths is to secure the necessary financial resources so that the foundation may continue grantmaking and achieve some degree of sustainability.

The role of community foundations is evolving, however the need to obtain donations to support grantmaking activities and reach long-term sustainability remains unchanged. New community foundations with no endowment and little or no staff can find the tasks of fundraising and attracting, engaging and maintaining donors confusing and time consuming. Mobilising the community’s internal resources, attracting them from the outside and/or creating them by promoting innovative programs and partnerships are all paths that should be explored. The author tries to address the questions community foundations need to ask about their context and organization and aims to describe different fundraising/wealth-generating tactics that are available to new community foundations. The paper focuses mainly on the Italian context, an area where community foundations are gradually becoming a recognised movement but have not yet completed their journey.
 

Vittoria Burton - Full text

Thomas Bastianel, 2011 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Padua

Learning from the North American community foundations’ experience: Strategies, models and best practices for Italian banking foundations

Abstract:
Italian banking foundations, created through the privatization of savings banks in the 1990s, are some of the biggest foundations in Europe. Italian bank foundations are similar to community foundations in being grant making organizations with a local focus. However Italian bank foundations have been less effective in pursuing their objectives than community foundations. Italian banking foundations have been hindered in part because of their low visibility with the public, but also because of their limited experience in philanthropic enterprise versus asset management. They also suffer from a continuing mistrust on the part of communities which associate the foundations with the banks from which the foundations originated.

Drawing on lessons from community foundations around the world, Thomas Bastianel finds pragmatic insights to help Italian bank foundations strengthen their community relationships. The paper doesn’t aim to provide a theoretical framework, but instead a list of practical proposals which may be easily adapted by a bank-origin foundation. Bastianel groups useful practices into three headings: commitment, representativeness, and donors. He argues that actions such as the launch of a small grants program, the creation of a Youth Advisory Committee, and the sponsorship of a public cause could help Italian bank foundations build legitimacy in their communities.

The paper ends with a case study of the successful Brooklyn Community Foundation: a bank-origin foundation in the United States which decided to change its status into a legally organized public community foundation.
 

Thomas Bastianel - Full text

Deborah Bolognesi, 2008 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Bologna

Strengthening civil society: Fondazione per il Sud as a driver of community foundations in Southern Italy

Abstract:
In this paper, Deborah Bolognesi considers the context, the strengths, and the challenges for the creation of community foundations in southern Italy. Giving a detailed analysis of the current Italian community organizations, this research seeks to investigate community foundations as a way to improve the philanthropy in Italy. The paper reviews the economic challenges that face southern Italy and the philanthropic organizations which operate there. Of special note is that nearly all the twenty-one community foundations in Italy operate in northern regions, as opposed to the poorer South.

Bolognesi focuses on the activities of the Fondazione per il Sud, a new grantmaking foundation committed to supporting the creation in southern Italy of social infrastructure and community foundations. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations for Fondazione per il Sud and similar organizations, including conducting detailed reviews of past practices, implementing a communication strategy to inform local people about the role of community foundations, and seeking partnerships with local leaders who have a proven track record of honesty and competence.


Bernardino Casadei, 2013 Senior Fellow, Milan

Collective impact: An opportunity for philanthropy in general and especially for community foundations

Abstract:
Bernardino Casadei writes at a time when a social crisis is facing the welfare state throughout southern Europe and philanthropy is being asked to take on the extra burden of providing basic social services and addressing the economic wellbeing of local populations. He posits that this crisis is a structural one in which local philanthropy cannot provide more than palliative care, but it presents a unique opportunity for community foundations to rethink their ways of operating for a new era.

In particular, Mr. Casadei notes that the previous practice of piloting innovative projects to be taken on and replicated by government is no longer valid, as the prospects for the sustainability of such projects cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, the pressure for local non-governmental organizations to constantly innovate may distract from their resources and priorities. Instead, he argues, community foundations should promote partnerships as a way to ensure sustainability in times of limited resources. Managing partnerships can be labor-intensive and time-consuming, but Mr. Casadei maintains that community foundations are best placed to leverage resources, to connect people across sectors, and to absorb risks. It will require a change in mindsets, as well as the elements of collective impact (as outlined in the Stanford Social Innovation Review), in order to mobilize communities and partners for the common good.

Mr. Casadei thus offers a rousing manifesto to his colleagues in the community foundation field, challenging them to take the lead in addressing the social crisis facing southern European localities. He stresses the need for a common vision and for community foundations to provide the essential resources to move beyond this difficult period.


Daniela Castagno, 2021 Senior Fellow, Rome

Partnering with the Italian diaspora to harness social change in (Southern) Italy​

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Tiziana Colasanti, 2003 International Fellow, Milan

Emerging community foundations in southern Italy: Social utility, overseas partnering, and international models

Abstract:
Tiziana Colasanti explores different strategies for establishing and developing community foundations in Italy, particularly in the South. Drawing on discussions with community foundation leaders, representatives from the Italian American community, and those working to promote diaspora philanthropy, Ms. Colasanti recommends several ways to strengthen Italian community foundations.

These include: identifying overseas corporate partners to promote diaspora philanthropy; organizing internships for Italy's nonprofit practitioners in more established US community foundations; and linking Italy's community foundations and nonprofits with more established organizations in the US. In particular, Tiziana explores possible partnerships for Italy's emerging community foundations with US-based United Way organizations, Italian American associations, and “friends of … associations” (akin to the Czech- American “Friends of Via” initiative).


Daniele Pietro Giudici, 2014 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Milan

Endowments strategy in community foundations: A step towards institutional and financial sustainability

Abstract:
This paper identifies long-term sustainability strategies for community foundations that can be modified and adopted by boards of directors in their roles as organizational leaders. Mr. Giudici develops recommendations for Italian Community Foundations designed to promote a higher degree of financial and organizational stability. To achieve this, the paper analyzes the key elements of endowment strategy in conjunction with the context of Italian foundations, particularly in terms of investment policy—asset allocation and spending policies, for example—and financial governance, in order to reveal the connection between developing engagement in the community and growing financial resources for endowments. Ultimately, it argues that both elements are dependent on the strategic decisions of leadership and governance.

Through showcasing and comparing successful approaches used by foundations in the United States, Mr. Giudici shows that building an assets management strategy contributes to the institutional and financial sustainability of Community Foundations and, in turn, provides long-term benefits to the community. Mr. Giudici stresses the need for an integrated approach to Community Foundation sustainability that brings together financial and institutional elements; in particular, he emphasizes building capacity with visionary leadership and governance, providing professional development opportunities for staff members, setting endowment strategies, and focusing on fostering the “culture of giving.”


Alessio Sala Tenna, 2020 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Como

Innovative strategies for involving young people in community philanthropy

 


Sonia Schellino, 2008 Senior Fellow, Turin

Strategies for development of an “ownership model” of community foundations in Italy

Abstract:
After providing a very brief survey of the Italian philanthropic landscape, which includes 20 community foundations, Ms. Schellino argues that the future challenge for these community foundations which were initiated with the help of bank foundation funds is to portray themselves as independent organizations.

The author explains that demonstration of independence will require efforts to engage individuals with different skills and a range of financial resources. Her recommendations include strategies to reach out to community leaders, foster strong partnerships, and educate young people. These recommendations include:

For the governance framework—

  • Select a board so that it reflects and represents the community it serves.
  • Set out board governance policies that define numbers, terms of service, and compensation details.
  • Involve young and emerging leaders from the start.
  • Provide members of the board with learning opportunities that draw on a cross-section of the community.
  • Require board members to make donations to the community foundation.

For building communities—

  • Work closely with lawyers and others who deal with wills, including those affiliated with financial institutions.
  • Initiate a plan of action based on research about the needs of the community that is conducted in consultation with community stakeholders.
  • Provide donors with involvement opportunities and a menu of funding choices in accordance with the foundation’s strategic plan.
  • Promote donor options for recognition using “naming opportunities.”
  • Provide educational programs for young people and the public at large to foster community awareness about philanthropy.

Ms. Schellino argues that following these recommendations will help engage local leadership and resources, and will generate increased community commitment and a sense of ownership.

Catherine Kiganjo, 2006 Senior Fellow, Nairobi

The role of community foundations in facilitating diaspora philanthropy (case study of KCDF in Kenya)

Abstract:
Catherine Kiganjo examines the role of U.S. community foundations in promoting diaspora philanthropy. She highlights the role community foundations in Kenya play in poverty reduction, sustainable development and social justice.

Focusing on members of the Kenyan diaspora living in the United States, Ms. Kiganjo suggests that these individuals represent untapped financial resources that may be channeled through community foundations to assist and improve communities back home. She presents Kenya Community Development Foundation as an example of a well-established community foundation, which seeks to promote a philanthropic framework in Kenya and provide a working model to test the effectiveness of giving by members of the African diaspora. The foundation has recently established a "Friends of KCDF" entity in the United States to support community development in Kenya.

Ms. Kiganjo’s research reveals that there is inadequate information on diaspora philanthropy in the African continent. She argues that there is need to establish a demographic profile and evaluate the Kenyan diaspora’s philanthropic potential. Among the recommendations she offers are:

  • develop the culture of organized giving among the Kenyan diaspora by promoting models that exist in the United States;
  • educate the diaspora about how endowments at Kenya Community Development Foundation promote sustainable development;
  • collaborate with existing organizations such as diplomatic missions and the Kenyan community abroad;
  • maximize the use of information technology to inform the diaspora about on-the-ground efforts by KCDF and others;
  • promote cause-related marketing (for donor-advised funds and endowments);
  • identify and review the regulatory requirements to ensure that communities in the diaspora are aware of new legal or political developments that could have an impact on fundraising efforts; and
  • ensure that recipient organizations are transparent and accountable in the utilization of public funds.

Lynnette Gacheri Micheni, 2012 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Naivisha

Towards sustainable youth-led projects and organizations in post-conflict communities: Lessons, approaches and strategies from community foundations

Abstract:
Recent economic growth and increasing levels of education in some sub-Saharan nations like Kenya have corresponded with observable growth in citizen involvement in grassroots community organizations. Engaging with the large youth population is essential to the success of such groups. Over 70,000 youth groups exist in Kenya alone, over half of which operate in post-conflict areas. In this paper, Lynnette Micheni investigates how the community foundation model can mobilize the energies of Kenyans between the ages 18-35. Community foundations rely on secure funding and developing strong donor relations which often presents challenges to organizations centered on youth involvement. Seeking examples of community foundations that successfully promote youth participation, Micheni casts her net widely; her case studies include the Community Foundation of Northern Ireland and Youth Advisory Councils of America.

Ms. Micheni includes in her paper several principles which could govern the promotion of youth-led community philanthropy. These recommendations include a focus on multigenerational cooperation, where the experience and contacts of older members are combined with the innovations of youth members. To avoid “funder mission creep,” where local realities are ignored due to centralized planning from major donors, Micheni argues that youth leadership can keep a foundation flexible in its strategies. Micheni also urges that community organizations concentrate on training and professionalizing youth members, which in turn will prepare youth to assume leadership positions within community organizations.


Emmanuel Opati, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Nairobi

The role of regional associations of grantmakers in strengthening community foundations:  Case study of New York Regional Associations of Grantmakers

Abstract:
Emmanuel Opati suggests that grantmakers' associations recently have helped promote the community foundation concept, including advocating for changes in tax laws to make it easier and more beneficial for individuals, businesses, and organizations to donate funds to community foundations.

Arguing that regional associations of grantmakers (RAGs) are increasingly able to build and provide support mechanisms that will allow foundations to thrive, Mr. Opati urges RAGs to work to develop their capacities in the following areas:

  • Information exchange and networking;
  • Research, outreach to government, and media relations on behalf of their membership organizations;
  • Provision of technical assistance to members;
  • Access to group benefits from service providers, such as insurance, thereby helping to leverage the often limited resources associated with smaller organizations; and
  • Promotion of ethical grantmaking, public accountability, and self-regulation in accordance with local legal requirements.

In his paper, Mr. Opati draws on a variety of examples to illustrate the role regional associations of grantmakers can play in promoting institutional philanthropy, creating intangible value by promoting partnerships, improving performance, and advancing the state of knowledge in the grantmaking field. In conclusion, Mr. Opati suggests that in building upon some of these recommendations, the East Africa Association of Grantmakers (EAAG) can strengthen existing institutions, foster indigenous philanthropy, and also promote the institutionalization of philanthropy within the region.


Ndana Bofu-Tawamba, 2017 Senior Fellow, Nairobi

Engineering an alternative feminist business model: Building regenerative community philanthropy in Africa

Abstract:
This paper seeks to provide some experiential and critical analysis for regenerative, women-centric and durable approaches to sustaining women’s rights work through private sector funding. The author points to the entry of private-public partnerships as well as the interest by private sector actors in the development and women’s rights spheres as a progressive move towards realizing not only development goals but also gender justice. The author proffers that using a regenerative business model of engagement targeting women’s economic empowerment allows women the means to enhance their security, incomes, and ownership and control of their destinies. This in turn would lead to their making meaningful investments in their spheres of influence through supporting community philanthropy on issues close to their hearts and realities. By providing women with opportunities for trade, employment, business and learning, development stakeholders that include the private sector have higher chances of positively influencing their institutional goals, be it through profit or organizational development, as well as national and local development goals. The author makes a case, therefore, for companies and corporations to consider women as integral to their business strategies.

Ainuska Sheripkanova, 2014 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Bishkek

Community foundations as a vehicle in the development of local giving in Kyrgyzstan

Abstract:
The number of philanthropists engaging in international and domestic giving is rapidly increasing within developing countries. However, due to incomplete reporting and deficient monitoring, it is difficult to compile the data that statistically evidences the effects of this philanthropy. This is particularly true for Kyrgyzstan, a country experiencing a revival in community assistance and religious giving that, unfortunately, has been conducted with virtually no supporting data. This paper analyzes both local and international literature related to community foundations, arguing that such institutions offer a promising mechanism in the developing world for promoting a local culture of giving and constructing a philanthropic infrastructure. Ultimately, as Ainuska Sheripkanova demonstrates, the community foundations model is well-suited for promoting transparency among nonprofit and charitable organizations in Kyrgyzstan.

Gunita Bullite, 2001 International Fellow, Riga

The role of cross-sectoral partnerships in identifying a broad and sustainable donor base for Latvia’s emerging community foundations and other nonprofits.

Abstract:
Gunita Bullite's study seeks to suggest methods for broadening and sustaining the donor base of Latvia's emerging community foundations. She focuses on two groups of potential donors—business and the Latvian diaspora—and examines ways of engaging these groups in building Latvia's community infrastructure. Ms. Bullite studies international corporate giving patterns and the history of Latvian diaspora giving in order to suggest replicable models to facilitate the involvement of business in community development and also create an enhanced sense of trust donors, organizations, and recipients. Her recommendations are intended to raise awareness within corporate and diaspora groups about the mutual benefits that can be derived from involvement in community development, including community foundations.


Rūta Dimanta, 2017 Fellow on Community Philanthropy, Riga

Challenges of philanthropic organizations in the digital era

Abstract:
The purpose of this position paper is to look at how digital era socio-economic forecasts could potentially affect society and the development of philanthropic organizations in the coming decades in the world in general and in the author’s home country of Latvia in particular. Acknowledging that as a small economy, Latvia is not a global player, the author makes the case that global trends influence every nation. If we all understand the rules of game—global changes, new challenges, and new potential—we can better prepare to adapt to new situations, make smart decisions and ensure that we are ready to face the new agendas of the coming decades. The aim is not only to respond, but also influence and take the lead in addressing society’s needs and interests.

Twenty-first century challenges are associated with rapid technological development. From the perspective of industrial development, we are at the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This revolution builds on the Digital Revolution, representing new ways in which technology becomes embedded in societies, and even the human body. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is marked by emerging technological breakthroughs in a number of fields, including robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, the Internet of things, 3D printing and autonomous vehicles. These new technologies combine the physical, digital and biological worlds and will impact all disciplines, including philanthropy. Philanthropic organizations will face questions that do not have answers yet.

Nevertheless, the conversation must start now.

You cannot wait until a house burns down to buy fire insurance on it. We cannot wait until there are massive dislocations in our society to prepare for the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

-- Robert J. Shiller (2013 Nobel Laureate in Economics and Professor of Economics, Yale University), at the 2016 World Economic Forum Annual


Rasma Rozenberga, 2007 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Langstini

Community foundations in the U.S. and Latvia: How can we benchmark traditions?

Abstract:
In this paper, Rasma Rozenberga explores the possibilities for Latvia provided by the rich U.S. tradition of community foundations. How can this culturally embedded practice be adapted to Latvia and what social and cultural factors should be considered by policy makers? In order to approach these questions, Rozenberga analyzes how the recent history of Latvia presents challenges to foundations working there, in light of the fact that public organizations have trouble establishing legitimacy among locals.

The paper includes case studies of the operations of two US community foundations, the Princeton Area Community Foundation in New Jersey and the Berks County Community Foundation in Pennsylvania, with the hope of drawing lessons for analogous organizations in Latvia. Since public organizations have been somewhat delegitimized in Latvia, Rozenberga suggests that Lativian community foundations seek private business partnerships, and engage in venture philanthropy in order to garner funds and increase the number of Latvians involved in philanthropy. Rozenberga also recommends that Latvia adopt a series of tax incentives and regulatory procedures conducive to fostering community foundations.

Mariana Torres Blair, 2004 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Mexico City

Mobilizing resources through Mexican hometown associations to community foundations in Mexico

Abstract:
Through examination of a possible partnership between the Puebla Community Foundation in Mexico and the Mixteca Organization, Inc. in the United States, Mariana Torres Blair explores the conditions that have to be met in order for transnational philanthropy to result in 1) sustainable development for the community of origin and 2) accountability and transparency for the migrants' community of residence.

As part of her project, Ms. Torres Blair:

  • Shared information about the Puebla Community Foundation with several Poblano Hometown Associations in New York City;
  • Identified interest among migrants in channeling funds to Mexico through existing community foundations; and
  • Facilitated a meeting in Puebla in May 2004 between the Puebla Community Foundation and members of the Mixteca Organization.

Ms. Torres Blair plans to expand on her work by researching potential business and governmental involvement in the process, including the possibility of working with companies in the State of Puebla.


Alejandra Cervantes, 2003 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Mexico City

Mexican immigrant hometown associations as catalyst for community foundation development in Mexico

Abstract:
Alejandra Cervantes’s study focuses on Zacatecan Hometown Associations (HTAs)—grassroots philanthropic organizations formed by Mexican immigrants in the United States and built on traditional immigrant networks. Reflecting their transnational reality, HTAs seek both to preserve the traditional culture of Zacatecan immigrants living in the U.S. and, through donations, to improve life back in their communities of origin.

Ms. Cervantes contends that through their federations, HTAs are a strong vehicle for promoting the development of a community foundation in the state of Zacatecas. By mobilizing their two main assets— financial resources and social capital—Zacatecan HTAs have a strong capacity to grow, innovate, and channel donations to development in their home state. Given its transnational character such an enterprise can benefit from a strategy centered on collaboration, and there are numerous institutions in the nonprofit and governmental sectors alike that could partner in such an initiative. Examples include such intermediary organizations as Caja Popular Mexicana; cross-border grantmakers like El Paso Community Foundation and the Pan-American Development Foundation; membership organizations such as The Hispanic Federation; and transnational projects (e.g. the Chicago-Mexico Leadership Initiative and the US-Mexico Border Philanthropy Partnership). Ms. Cervantes maintains that the cohesive nature of HTA federations argues strongly in favor of their serving as key actors in the establishment of a Zacatecan community foundation with strong cross-border ties that will facilitate effective local economic development.


Alma Cota de Yañez, 2007 Senior Fellow, Nogales

From pennies to dollars: Giving locally, succeeding locally

Abstract:
The paper examines a new philanthropic effort called the “Round Up program” initiated by FESAC Nogales. As part of the program a local NGO is selected as the recipient of a fundraising campaign undertaken by local merchants under the aegis of FESAC, Nogales. Managers and cashiers are trained about the mission of the featured NGO and ask customers at the point of purchase to round up their change and donate it to the NGO. Each NGO is selected for a three month period. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations:

  • There is momentum to promote the Round Up as an ongoing program of local philanthropy through which consumers can be support local NGOs;
  • There is the potential to present the “Round Up” as a sustainable initiative that would include local government as well as a third partner from the local business and/or maquiladora sector. FESAC could administer the expanded program;
  • The program has the potential to educate the next generations of Mexican donors to give locally on a regular basis and, even if the amounts are small, to build a culture of giving.

Dresda Emma Mendez de la Brena, 2013 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Cuernavaca

Changing lenses:  From government-led development to community-led development; contributions of community foundations in Mexico

Abstract:
Due to its historical past, the Mexican government has been the main motor of philanthropy and social development. Through the promotion of social assistance programs to address social injustice, government has led development in the belief that outside experts and resources are the only ones that can provide real help in the communities, an approach that has created dependency and discouraged the perception that people can lead and contribute to their own development. Within this scenario, community foundations have had an important role in changing thinking about the form development needs to take, based on a more comprehensive understanding of communities. In this paper, the author argues that, unlike government, which directly provides services to the ‘needy’ through patronage social programs, community foundations work at the grassroots level by looking to local assets – financial and otherwise – to help build local capacity and trust for the purpose of addressing community needs and priorities, consolidating themselves as community builders.

Ms. Mendez de la Brena presents a historical overview of the Mexican socio economic background to show the main characteristics of government-led development programs. In order to understand the relevance of Mexican community foundations in encouraging community-led development processes, three case studies are presented: Fundación Comunidad Morelos, Fundación Comunitaria del Bajío and Fundación del Empresariado Sonorense, Nogales Chapter. Each case study provides examples of community-led processes and extraordinary creativity to encourage social change. For the last section, Ms. Mendez de la Brena presents several examples of community engagement conducted by other overseas community foundations, and suggests incorporating similar experiences to improve the contribution of Mexican community foundations in community- led development.

Satish Raj Pandey, 2002 International Fellow, Kathmandu

Applicability study of selected ‘Northern’ and ‘Southern’ community foundation models for the Nepalese context

Abstract:
In an effort to explore the potential of community foundations for jump-starting home-grown development resource initiatives, Satish's study explores different models of community foundations in the US and in selected southern countries; and how these models can be adapted to meet the needs of Nepal. Based on case studies, the author concludes that community foundations' key strengths are long-term perspectives on community development; institutional permanence (perpetuity); flexibility; and accountability. Elements central to the success of community foundations include: resources to build capacity from external bodies; early involvement of key stakeholders to create a sense of ownership; incremental, but progressive, initiatives that establish a successful track record; and a diverse board of directors.

In a country like Nepal where the presence of foreign and multilateral donors has created a culture of dependency among many development organizations, the community foundation concept can be a path- breaking innovation. While the author emphasizes the need to significantly expand the donor base in Nepal, he indicates that community foundations can play a major role in initiating and promoting private giving at the local level. He identifies several potential sources of funds for endowment building including: the sahu jamindars who have large land holdings; bequests from wealthy single individuals; and the promotion of corporate giving.

Mark Andrew Bentley, 2012 Senior Fellow, Auckland

Partnering with local government: Accelerating the achievement of community foundation sustainability

Abstract:
Community foundations are one of the fastest growing forms of philanthropy worldwide, almost doubling in number in the last ten years. However, most community foundations do not achieve sustainability until after seven to ten years and this is a major challenge for the movement.

The aim Mr. Mark Bentley’s research is to identify and test a range of partnership opportunities with local government that might be successful in helping community foundations accelerate the journey to organizational and financial sustainability. The academic literature was reviewed for information on community foundation sustainability and the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful working relationships with local government. Partnership opportunities were identified and then tested in discussions with community foundation leaders worldwide.

The results revealed a clear and consistent group of practical opportunities through which local government could support the start-up and survival of community foundations worldwide, as well as some opportunities that were more context-specific in nature. Whilst highlighting many of the challenges for a community foundation in working more closely with local government, the research proposed a range of strategies that would maximize the potential for successful partnership and mutual benefit.
 

Mark Andrew Bentley - Full text

Karyn Lea McLeod, 2012 Senior Fellow, Auckland

Earthquake: Shaking up New Zealand’s philanthropic landscape

Abstract:
On February 22, 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake hit the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, killing 185 local residents and inflicting massive infrastructural damage. The earthquake and other local tremors have severely altered the landscape of the city, necessitating a process of rebuilding that will cost between an estimated 16 and 24 billion US dollars; unfortunately, as Karyn McLeod reveals, the strict regional mandates of local Community Trusts in New Zealand precluded them from contributing to a coordinated response to the Christchurch crisis.

This paper, then, seeks to encourage Community Trusts to consider developing a national framework that allows them to respond collectively to future natural disasters or other emergencies in New Zealand.

Rather than viewing disasters as singular, tragic events, Ms. McLeod argues that they must be considered as a possibility within any community. In order to save lives and ensure financial stability, philanthropic institutions must integrate disaster protection into plans for long-term development. This framework, Ms. McLeod posits, would allow Community Trusts to respond collaboratively without compromising legal funding restrictions and, in turn, encourage a national ideological shift in philanthropic approaches not only within the context of disaster grantmaking, but within other arenas that might also benefit from a unified national approach. Through interviews and research, Ms. McLeod draws upon the best practices of disaster recovery oriented grantmaking institutions in the United States in order to provide a model for New Zealand Community Trusts to maximize their collective impact and, as a result, become key entities in addressing national policy issues in the future.
 

Karyn McLeod - Full text

Gráinne Kelly, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Belfast

The role of community foundations in supporting third-sector peacebuilding in post-conflict societies: Lessons from Northern Ireland

Abstract:
Gráinne Kelly explores the role that community foundations can play in supporting peacebuilding initiatives in regions emerging from violent conflict. Her discussion focuses on the example of Northern Ireland, a society struggling to come to terms with a thirty-year conflict that has caused underdevelopment, political instability, and social division. She draws on lessons from other post-conflict regions, including South Africa and Israel, and considers the work of community foundations in the United States that address racial tensions.

Ms. Kelly identifies several key questions:

  • What challenges do community foundations face when working within divided societies?
  • How do community foundations ensure adequate accountability and transparency in post-conflict societies?
  • How do community foundations achieve adequate representation from all constituencies, many of whom have had antagonistic relationships?
  • How do community foundations balance long-term needs, while addressing the immediate, often urgent, situations that are likely to erupt as a region moves from conflict to peace?

Employing the characteristics developed by the Worldwide Initiative of Grantmakers (WINGS) to identify community foundations, Ms. Kelly concludes that the value of a community foundation lies in its ability to bring people together. Having identified the challenges that community-based foundations may face, Ms. Kelly moves on to consider the many benefits that such a structure can bring to a community emerging from conflicts.

Hugo Luís Martinez de Seabra, 2020 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Lisbon

Is there space for community philanthropy within the Portuguese civil society landscape?  Benchmarks and scenarios for the role of private and independent foundations in fostering the community philanthropy agenda

Abstract:
Hugo Luís Martinez de Seabra considers the potential roles that strong private and independent foundations can play to strengthen a country’s culture of giving at the regional and local levels over the medium and long term. His research considers, for example, the potential for promoting and piloting bottom-up participatory decision-making processes offered by Portugal’s Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, which has more than 60 years of experience as a grantmaker and a strong leverage ability. He also considers the possibilities for engaging local apolitical champions and supporting emerging ones to boost community philanthropy.

Following an introduction to the civil society landscape of Portugal—including nongovernmental organizations, foundations, corporate social responsibility, community philanthropy and individual giving— the author discusses approaches taken and benchmarks set by independent private foundations in Spain, Italy, Belgium and Germany to foster community philanthropy. Subsequently, de Seabra argues that elements of Gulbenkian Foundation’s legacy, combined with learnings from the discussed approaches elsewhere in Europe, could help shape a strategy to place community philanthropy on the national agenda. Participatory co-ownership tools—like challenge grants, Vital Signs, giving circles and youth banks—adapted to the Portuguese context, could be incubated and piloted strategically and could benefit from the positive reputation and convening power of established private foundations. In addition, these tools could target higher engagement and harness the trust of a range of societal stakeholders, including the Portuguese diaspora. Lastly, he suggests that former recipients of foundation scholarships could be challenged through this strategy to give back with their talent, resources and time to the specific local communities with which they are associated. This strategy would allow large national philanthropic organizations, like Portugal’s Gulbenkian Foundation, to be more present at the grassroots, decentralized, regional and local levels.

Zuzanna Komornicka, 2009 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Krakow

YouthBanks as a model for building social capital

Abstract:
Civil society developed in Poland in the late twentieth century as the result of the transformation of Central East European culture that followed the fall of Communism. Knowledge about charitable giving in Poland was very weak and mostly associated with a few well-known NGOs. For many Poles, philanthropy was understood as begging, and is met with a lack of trust especially among older people who believe that government and businesses can spend money more effectively. Building trust is a long-term process and requires increasing the public’s knowledge about the third sector.

Against this backdrop, Zuzanna Komornicka focuses on the development of YouthBanks that have been introduced by Europe’s growing community foundation sector. She maintains that philanthropic programs run by young people at community foundations can: promote a culture of giving at the local level; encourage new perspectives; and further the development of philanthropy. The first decade of the twenty- first century has shown that youth philanthropy is a growing movement which is visible in the spread of YouthBanks to Central and Eastern Europe where the third sector was relatively undeveloped. In regions where youth programs were launched, they have been embraced as successful initiatives, helping young people gain new experiences, improve their leadership and communication skills, and involving them in making decisions regarding initiatives taking place in their communities.

By explaining how a community foundation functions, how building social capital and cultivating relationships is crucial to the development of civil society and the culture of giving in Poland, as well as how grantmaking programs can empower society, Komornicka identifies issues significant to the promotion of philanthropy in Poland. She argues that the development of youth philanthropy and the promotion of YouthBanks in Poland will strengthen trustworthiness, which eases social life and strengthens relations in the community that are so significant to building social capital.

Komornicka reflects on how YouthBanks or other youth initiatives groups can learn new strategies and partner with community foundations to address the needs of the societies of Eastern Europe. Through re- granting programs, community foundations and youth philanthropy initiatives will promote a new focus on local participation and local needs resulting in a direct impact on the everyday life of the people concerned. The author concludes that, in this way, YouthBanks can serve to create a new generation of sophisticated philanthropists.


Andrzej Zawieska, 2007 Senior Fellow, Nidzica

The role of community foundations locally and factors influencing the success of community foundations around the globe

Abstract:
The modern community foundation, which was born out of a tradition of philanthropy in North America in the early twentieth century, has been adapted successfully to different local cultures, socio-economic circumstances and giving traditions around the world. In his paper, Andrzej Zawieska summarizes the current situation of community foundations and introduces factors influencing the success of community foundations in the United States and Europe. He places particular emphasis on the importance of good leadership and endowment building, suggesting that these are equally applicable to build a successful community foundation regardless of location. In order to consider factors contributing to sustainability, the author compares community foundations in the US, the UK, and Poland, with regard to sources of donations, investment tools, as well as programmatic focus and diversification.

In his paper, Mr. Zawieska also includes information about the situation in Poland after communism, and the challenges faced by Polish community foundations and their role in local communities. In closing, he outlines the basic steps for creating a community foundation in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the steps recommended to further the development of community philanthropy are:

  • Encourage individuals and businesses to set up named funds, while also providing means for donors who wish to remain anonymous to do so;
  • Extend payroll-giving and encourage employees to support the endowment and scholarship programs of their local community foundations;
  • Increase legal opportunities for investment;
  • Establish partnerships with foreign community foundations;
  • Explore possibilities for the establishment of matching funds from foundations outside of Poland;
  • Research opportunities for engagement of the Polish diaspora;
  • Establish an association of Polish community foundations to develop standards and to facilitate cooperative action.

Ekaterina Maksimova, 2008 Senior Fellow, Moscow

Successful strategies for sustainable development of community foundation networks and support organizations

Abstract:
In this paper, Ekaterina Maksimova explores the ways that community foundations can be sustained over the long term. Maksimova considers the experiences, approaches, services and programs of community foundations in several countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada and the USA. Some information is also provided about approaches used for community foundation development in Poland, Germany, and Australia.

From such case studies, Maksimova draws a series of principles she identifies as necessary to sustain community foundations. Areas that she identifies as important are the maintenance of good relations between board members and staff, projecting a unified image to potential donors, and information sharing between community foundations. Ms. Maksimova considers information sharing as particularly vital for sustainability, since such cooperation ‘adds value’ to each participating organization.


Vadim Samorodov, 2004 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Moscow

Community foundations and donor development

Abstract:
Vadim Samorodov explores the ways that select US community foundations play leadership roles and how these practices might be translated to fit the circumstances of contemporary Russia.

Using Community Foundation Silicon Valley (CFSV) as a case study, Mr. Samorodov makes the following recommendations for Russia 's Community Foundations:

  • Establish partnerships with professional advisors as a means to attract a wide variety of local donors;
  • Encourage national CF networks and support organizations to partner with national and global financial institutions;
  • Engage donors in community programs by providing them with networking opportunities to discuss community issues, see program results first hand, and share their entrepreneurial skills with local grantee organizations;
  • Raise funds for both donor-advised programs and pools of unrestricted funds;
  • Educate business on the importance of a strong civil society.

Oleg Stakhanov, 2000 International Fellow, Moscow

Community foundations, individual donors, and the development of civil society

Abstract:
Stakhanov's study identifies fundraising techniques to help Russian community foundations attract individual donations. Coming ten years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the study links the growth of philanthropy in general, and the community foundation model in particular, with strengthening civil society and democratic forms of governance. However, many believe that NGOs misuse funds. Overcoming this negative perception is a great challenge to community foundations and the other 250,000 nonprofits in Russia. In closing, Stakhanov recommends that all fundraising efforts should exploit the “psychological need to give” and a multiple of market-based techniques. He further suggests that community foundations should consider separate campaigns: one for the general public and a second for the wealthy/elite who are more likely to give after long-term solicitation and relationship building.

Ranka Šarenac, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Risan

The role of community foundations in promoting good governance on the local level

Abstract:
Ranka Šarenac seeks to identify the ways in which community foundations may contribute to building more accountable and transparent local government.

Ms. Šarenac argues that community foundations are “charitable bankers” and “social change agents.” They work to keep donors informed about local needs as they balance tensions between community needs and donor wishes. Based on her research, Ms. Šarenac concludes that community foundations can promote good governance at the local level by exercising both direct and indirect influence over local authorities.

Emphasizing the need for more institutionalized philanthropic action in Serbia and Montenegro, especially at the local level, Ms. Šarenac advocates for introducing a community foundation or foundation-like organization in Montenegro. She maintains that through the core characteristics of a representative board, accountability and transparency, community foundations may serve as exemplary models for governance, particularly in countries in transition.

Finally, in order to leverage more local resources and build credibility, international donor assistance is necessary to initiate the process of establishing a community foundation in Montenegro.


Natalija Simović, 2015 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Belgrade

Community foundations and social capital: A vehicle for philanthropy development in Western Balkans

Abstract:
Various negative social and political factors in transitional societies in Western Balkans and the prolonged effects of economic crisis have been detrimental to social capital, and especially to social trust and civic engagement. Consequently, civil society organizations have become detached from their constituents in their pursuit of the common good, resulting in a decline of philanthropic values and practices. This research paper discusses the premise that community foundations can play an important role in restoring the community’s social capital for the purpose of philanthropy development. The premise was examined by means of an analysis of practices of community foundations and philanthropic organizations in the United States, United Kingdom, Western Balkans countries and Czech Republic. Based on conversations, program seminars, and the research undertaken by the author during the Emerging Leaders International Fellows Program, the paper provides foundations and philanthropic organizations in Western Balkans with recommendations for using social capital for the purpose of philanthropy development.

Zuzana Podhorska Konrádová, 2000 International Fellow, Bratislava

Sustainability and long-term viability of community foundations in Slovakia

Abstract:
This essay focuses on community foundations (CFs) and their contributions to the development of urban philanthropy in Slovakia, as well as the political, economic and social context in which they have been created. It also describes how they work and the problems they face, with an eye toward identifying models to help promote their long-term sustainability.

Ms. Phodorska compares two CF models, one American and one Slovakian, with an emphasis on their resource development, fundraising strategies, promotional campaigns, grantmaking and preparation of annual reports.

After three years of the Community Foundation Program in Slovakia, several questions have been raised which this research attempts to answer. This program started from almost nothing and put down roots in the nonprofit sector in Slovakia. During the first three years, the program changed in line with local conditions. It began as an initiative of the Open Society Foundation Bratislava (OSF) to apply the concept of community foundations to Slovakia.

The country’s first community foundation, the Healthy City Community Foundation Banska Bystrica, was established in 1994. The Community Foundation Program, which was inspired by the development of Banska Bystrica CF, started in 1996. Its program’s aim was to develop a mosaic of grassroots civil initiatives and NGOs in Slovakia to bring some of the OSF programs to the community level.

As a result of the program, three community foundations were established in 1997: the Community Association Sami Sebe, in Pezinok; the Community Fund of the Trencin Informal Association, in Trencin; and the Community Foundation Prešov, in Prešov. From 1998 to 1999, the Community Foundation Program was expanded by eight new CFs. Including these new additions, there are now eleven CFs (or initiatives) established by the OSF in Slovakia.

Benedict S. Cele, 2001 International Fellow, Durban

Civil society and corporate involvement as partners in South Africa’s economic development, and the role for the Greater Durban Community Foundation

Abstract:
Benedict Cele examines the role of the private, public, and civic sectors in the economic development of the Durban Metropolitan Area in South Africa. He argues that community foundations are uniquely suited to the Durban region, and have the potential to bring these sectors together. Building on case studies and discussions of the corporate-nonprofit relationship, Cele concludes with recommendations for the newly established Greater Durban Community. These recommendations address the issues of governance, community involvement support, adequate levels of staffing, and the design of a grantmaking priorities and program.


Fikile B. Kuhlase, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Morelata Park

Corporations, community, private-public sector partnerships (PPPs) and community foundations: the South African case

Abstract:
In her paper, Fikile Kuhlase discusses the emergent trend of corporations supporting community foundation-like organizations. She highlights the strategic intervention of the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC), a development finance institution. The IDC is described as the first corporation in South Africa to adopt the community foundation concept as part of its strategy for socio- economic transformation and “broad-based” black economic empowerment (BEE). Of note in the IDC model is that community foundations take up an equity stake in IDC-funded projects; the South African government through the Minister of Trade and Industry is the sole shareholder; and corporate social investment is viewed as central to business activity.

In conclusion, Ms. Kuhlase argues in favor of a model that places the community foundation at the center of a tripartite alliance between civil society and the private and public sectors. She concludes that community foundations are well positioned to take the lead in forging mutually beneficial partnerships in order to promote the common good, and describes community foundations that choose not to tackle social justice issues as wasting their potential to be catalysts for social change.


Chris Mkhize, 2003 Senior Fellow, Richards Bay

Viability of a partnership between Uthungulu Community Foundation, civil society organizations, and government agencies for the purpose of developing South African communities

Abstract:
Pointing to the many constitutional, legal, and political disagreements that exist in South Africa between traditional leaders (Inkosi), civil society organizations, and government, Chris Mkhize identifies partnerships as critical to effectively harnessing the country's resources. He argues that the task of developing the country's local communities is too complex to be left to any one sector of society and maintains that private and public sector organizations must sit down together to identify mechanisms for the development, finance, and monitoring of local development initiatives. Mr. Mkhize argues, for example, that partnerships between government and civil society organizations are a means to addressing the problems of duplication and uncoordinated delivery of health, education, and other social services, particularly to rural communities. Underlying his paper is discussion of the extent to which community foundations and other stakeholders in community development share common strategies and the means to identify the best ways to promote and develop partnerships between the key players in community development. Proposed actions to be taken to further the partnership goals include working with the Uthungulu Community Foundation to further negotiations underway with government agencies, the University of Zululand, traditional leaders, and both local and district councils, to provide training on management and public administration to Inkosi and council representatives. Further recommendations include a partnership between civil society organizations and the business, directed at finding a speedier way to bridge the divide between traditional/tribal leaders and government.


Bhekinkosi Moyo, 2003 International Fellow, Johannesburg

Community foundations, social capital, and development in South Africa

Abstract:
Citing the “need for a connecting thread between development projects and the people to be developed,” Mr. Moyo highlights the South African concept of ubuntu as a tool for channeling local philanthropy into emerging community foundations. Rooted in notions of the value of collective mutual aid that lie at the heart of ubuntuism, stokvels (initiatives that pool communal resources for specific ends such as savings clubs, burial societies, and collective investments) are a potential vehicle for increasing local giving. The challenge is to harness this tradition of collective capital formation for non-traditional ends. There is a strong need to present the community foundation model more clearly, in terms that local populations can understand, and to democratize local giving. As he explains, many “community foundations have not managed to sustain themselves simply because they have not taken the community along with them in fundraising.”


Fulufhelo Godfrey Netswera, 2004 International Fellow, Pretoria

Community foundations in South Africa: Establishment and sustenance challenges

Abstract:
In his paper, Fulu Netswera sets out four main objectives: 1) To look at factors informing traditional giving in South Africa; 2) To identify the lessons learned from South Africa’s first community foundation’s pilot program; 3) To examine the possibilities for mobilizing city resources from migrants; and 4) To consider the future of international donors in South Africa.

Emphasizing a rising black middle class as a potential source of giving back to rural communities, Mr. Netswera makes the following recommendations:

  • The need to tap traditional giving practices embedded in rural philosophies of collective identity and work activities;
  • The benefit of leadership training and publicity campaigns to promote institutional philanthropy;
  • The use of Home Town Associations (HTAs) as a possible model for mobilizing the resources of South Africa’s urban migrants and directing giving back to rural communities.
  • The need to reform South Africa’s tax laws to provide exemptions for contributions to foundations and the nonprofit sector more generally.

Nicole Rose Nieman, 2013 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Cape Town

Exploring the role of private money in strengthening communities to combat gender-based violence

Abstract:
Gender-based violence (GBV) has reached epidemic proportions, with over one-third of women globally having suffered some form of violence. The statistics are even higher in developing countries and the consequences of violence against women and girls from a health, educational and economic perspective are severe.

In her paper, Nicole Nieman focuses on her home country, South Africa, and advocates for a community- based approach, showing how gender-based violence begins in the home and how communities are well positioned to support violence prevention initiatives. Ms. Nieman seeks to create a discourse around further support for community-based and community focused anti-GBV initiatives, by looking at: i) rational for funding in the sector; ii) suggestions for high-impact investment areas; iii) ensuring the effectiveness and long-term sustainability of investments made.

Ms. Nieman identifies ways that foundations have used their grant-making and non-grantmaking roles to significantly impact on the communities they serve and urges private philanthropy to draw on community foundations as a key resource in engaging with communities. Through strategic non-grantmaking roles and by providing steady long-term funding to key community interventions, Ms. Nieman argues that private philanthropy can and should have a catalytic effect in the fight to end GBV across the globe.


Annsilla Nyar, 2002 International Fellow, Durban

Community foundations as an instrument of social change in South Africa

Abstract:
The paper examines the advent of a new kind of philanthropy in South Africa influenced by the community foundation model. The context is the rapidly changing cultural, political and socio-economic landscape of the post-apartheid order in South Africa. Key issues include: what community foundations in South Africa can learn from the experience of others; whether the community foundation model is replicable or easily transferable to fundamentally different philanthropic environments; and how a culture of voluntarism and social responsibility can be nurtured and promoted in South Africa. The research draws on semi-structured interviews with a range of North American philanthropic agencies, community foundations and grantmaking institutions, as well as an exploration of several Southern models including the Foundation for Community Development in Mozambique and the Western Region Foundation in Zimbabwe. Ms. Nyar addresses issues of partnerships, tax and legal considerations, and organizational structures. She argues that community foundations have the potential to change traditional conceptions of philanthropy in South Africa to a more progressive and people-oriented understanding of philanthropic giving. Finally, she indicates that the research feeds into a broader three-year research project into the state of “giving” in South Africa currently in progress at the Centre for Civil Society at the University of Natal, Durban.


Shaun George Samuels, 2013 Senior Fellow, Johannesburg

Strategies in building the culture of local giving in South Africa:  Making the case for community foundations as agency to facilitate giving

Abstract:
South Africa has a history of dependence on external funding that predates the end of apartheid in 1994. The nation’s recent classification as an upper-middle income country, however, has prompted a systematic reduction in such direct aid over the last ten years. This is particularly problematic because such classification obscures the extraordinary income disparity that exists within South Africa, epitomized by the socioeconomic rift separating the country’s economically advanced urban areas and impoverished townships, informal settlements, and rural regions. Although there is considerable promise within the country’s fledgling democratic political system to increase standards of living for previously marginalized citizens, Shaun George Samuels argues, there is a largely untapped segment of local resources that could be used by communities to successfully foster their own development without requiring them to rely heavily on government and donors.

This paper posits that the time has come for South Africa—and, in particular, its organizations of civil society—to transition away from dependence on external funding and instead promote an emphasis on local giving. Though there is very little empirical data on philanthropic practices in South Africa, Mr. Samuels points to fostering community leadership as the key to unlocking local resources, thus promoting a lifestyle of local giving and drawing connections across populations in support of the community foundation model.


Xolani Zungu, 2000 International Fellow, Durban

The development and process of implementing an appropriate community foundation model for South African cities in conjunction with governmental bodies

Abstract:
Politically and administratively, South Africa is undergoing important transformations. In his study, Xolani Zungu makes three proposals to invigorate the local government-civil society relationship. Local government should promote the democratic involvement of citizens, community responsibility, and mechanisms that enable communities to raise and manage resources, and community foundations are one means of achieving these changes. He goes on to write, “Community foundations, characterized by their focus on local asset development, local control and local decision making are uniquely suited for South African urban areas.”

Rosa Gallego, 2021 Senior Fellow, Madrid

Community foundation building: Identifying key capacities for the Spanish context

Abstract:

The community foundation concept is a growing global phenomenon. Community foundations (CFs) are diverse by nature, as they adapt to the characteristics of the community they are a part of and evolve with time.  For this reason, there is not a single definition nor a single set of attributes that can apply and translate everywhere to define what a CF is, how it should operate, and what its capacities should be.  As programmes supporting the development of community foundations spread around the world, more practitioners are dedicating time to adapt the CF concept to their realities and to develop programmes to support the setting up and growth of community foundations. A review of existing literature and conversations with experts leads the author to identify six key capacities that community foundations should have or should aspire to have.  The capacities are:

  • exercising community leadership to produce social change;
  • listening to the community and engaging it to understand and identify assets, opportunities, needs and solutions;
  • increasing local philanthropy;
  • strengthening local organisations;
  • mobilizing philanthropy disaster response, if and when necessary; and
  • adapting the work of the CF to the specific territorial context and reality in which CF operates.

Gallego offers tools and activities to help exercise each capacity.

Rosa Gallego - Full text (English)  (Spanish)


Carles Massot, 2020 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Barcelona

Establishment and development of community foundations in Spain: Learning from other national contexts to foster a thriving and sustainable community foundation movement

Abstract: forthcoming
 

Carles Massot - Full text

Mercedes Mosquera Arancibia, 2009 Senior Fellow, Barcelona

How to strengthen community foundations and ensure their sustainability: Sharing from Spain with the global community

Abstract:
In this paper, Mercedes Mosquera seeks to identify lessons from the global community foundation movement that will help to strengthen Spanish community foundations. None of the five organizations which compose the Spanish Community Foundation Network were established as community foundations. The evolution of these foundations provides not only a model to the international field, but also instructive examples of innovative community leadership and adaptation to particular contexts. At the same time, Spanish community foundations face challenges due to their relative youth, the lack of familiarity with the model of Spain, and the instability brought on by global economic fluctuations.

By means of comparative examples, Mosquera analyzes factors that make a community foundation sustainable. The findings of this analysis are compiled in order to recommend steps that should be taken by the Spanish Network and its support organizations. Recommendations include involving individuals between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five in foundation leadership and planning, and employing a minimum of one paid staff person rather than relying solely on volunteer support as is so often the case at start-up with small foundations.

Sujeevan Perera, 2003 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Colombo

Developing local philanthropy and effectively managing foundation resources in Sri Lanka

Abstract:
Sujeevan Perera examines the question of how a secular culture of giving might be developed in Sri Lanka, a country where civil society is weak, poverty extensive, and social unrest an ongoing problem. As in many countries, Sri Lanka 's third sector is heavily reliant on foreign donors, the level of professional development is often low, local resources are limited, and public confidence in NGOs is often lacking. Although there is a strong tradition of religious philanthropy, little of this giving currently finds its way into social development programs.

Within this framework, Mr. Perera suggests several initiatives to foster a secular philanthropic culture in Sri Lanka. His suggestions include efforts to increase corporate social responsibility, promote diaspora philanthropy, introduce tax reforms, and develop more institutions to channel giving to philanthropic ends, including community foundations. He also notes that it may be possible to divert a portion of Sri Lankan remittances from the Middle East into social causes. First steps would be to collect and publicize stories of successful projects, and to identify and nurture potential donors. Necessary steps for creating a community foundation are also detailed, from managerial training to building a board and setting up different kinds of funds. Transparency should be stringently maintained to build trust, and Sri Lankan NGOs should create a self-regulatory authority to promote enhanced accountability within the sector.

Wei-Ming Sunny Ho, 2001 International Fellow, Taipei

The obstacles and structural issues affecting the establishment of community foundations in Taiwan

Abstract:
Despite a long history, traditional philanthropic practices in Chinese culture are rarely discussed, and the institutionalization of philanthropic mechanisms is relatively neglected. This contributes an underdeveloped philanthropic community in comparison to the country's lively array of grass-roots and community-based organizations. The recent decentralization of the governmental structure in Taiwan indicates a need for greater community-focused development planning and resource mobilization. The community foundation model may serve as one solution to these needs. Ms. Ho reviews the evolution, formation, and roles of community foundations in the United States and, after identifying the key factors that correspond to the current needs of Taiwan's philanthropic development, recommends applicable community-foundation-like operations.


Yung Hsing Kao, 2005 Senior Fellow, Taipai

Exploring the potential and strategies for community foundations in Taiwan

Abstract:
In his paper, Mr. Kao, who is the Assistant Director of the Himalaya Foundation, argues that community foundations can be a new mechanism to help address current challenges and meet future development needs. He then explores how the model can be implemented in his country.

Kao offers a comprehensive definition of community foundations. Among the characteristics most relevant to his study are that community foundations: seek to improve the quality of life for all people in a defined geographic area; are governed by a board of citizens broadly reflective of the communities they serve; make grants to other nonprofit organizations to address a wide variety of emerging needs in the community; and are accountable to the community by informing the general public on a regular basis about their purpose, activities, and finances.

After presenting a brief overview of the nonprofit sector in Taiwan, the paper critically addresses the sector's shortcomings including: the absence of all but a few active and engaged boards and grantmaking foundations (the majority of foundations operate their own projects, and corporate foundations often act as public relations instruments for the company); the lack of accountability and transparency; and the absence of tools that allow donors to control their own philanthropy, such as field of interest or donor advised funds. The remainder of the paper explores strategies for the development of community foundations.


Yun-Ching Tseng, 2004 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Taipei

Knowledge management in community foundations

Abstract:
Yun-Ching Tseng builds her research on two assumptions: 1) That community-based organizations (CBOs) are knowledge-intensive bodies that depend on that knowledge to strengthen their communities; 2) That organizations must use their intellectual assets effectively to survive.

Ms. Tseng argues that community foundations need to enhance their operations through improved knowledge management, and maintains that Taiwan 's nonprofit sector has much to learn from the US grantmaking community. Ms. Tseng presents a series of suggestions for Taiwan's CBOs, including:

  • Identifying the core values of the organization, specifying areas of intellectual capital to be created and maintained, and determining each departmental employee’s mission;
  • Building a learning environment (e.g. encourage employees to acquire, create accumulate, and share knowledge);
  • Improving the use of the information technology by creating an internal information portal and developing IT solutions for knowledge accumulation, acquisition, and sharing.

John Robert Ulanga, 2012 Senior Fellow, Dar-es-Salaam

Approaches to and challenges of establishing community foundations in Africa:  The case of Tanzania

Abstract:
Rapid urbanization in Tanzania has created an urgent need for new mechanisms to extend community- driven development (CDD) into cities. In this paper, John Ulanga investigates the practices that philanthropic groups in Africa can adopt in order to engage with community needs while also ensuring organizational sustainability. Community foundations present a good opportunity for community-led interventions to address community challenges in a sustainable way. They also present a unique opportunity for communities to take the lead in tackling current problems and to prepare an institutional mechanism for addressing future challenges.

In order to identify best practices to recommend to Tanzanian organizations, the author examines the strengths of foundations, like the Brooklyn Community Foundation and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation. These case studies iterate the importance of staff professionalization and a clear strategic plan to ensure good governance. He also concludes that a diversified donor base of both local and international contributors and transparent accounting records would help further the economic sustainability of Tanzanian foundations. Mr. Ulanga ends his paper by urging Tanzania’s four existing community foundations to conduct a large cross-organizational assessment, in order to both map existing resources and identify potential avenues of growth.

Jarusri Jiravisitkul, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Bangkok

Community foundations within the context of Thai society

Abstract:
The research undertaken by Jarusri Jiravisitkul builds upon a current project in Thailand to establish four community foundations. This research project is based on three assumptions: (1) community foundations can help promote a healthy society by engaging the government, local organizations, corporations, and community members to work together on a partnership basis; (2) endowments serve community foundations as mechanisms to promote sustainable development; and (3) community foundations are an adaptable form of philanthropy with the potential to strategically invest in the future of society.

Using Rayong—one of the community foundation sites located on the eastern coast of Thailand—as her test case, Ms. Jiravisitkul explores how to leverage a traditionally unstructured philanthropic culture based on the precepts of Buddhism. She compares good practices for board engagement and resource mobilization, drawing on examples of both US and non-US community foundations in order to highlight customized strategies that work in different environments, societies, and cultures.

After reviewing current practices elsewhere and considering these against the economic, social, and cultural practices in Rayong, Ms. Jiravisitkul offers several recommendations.

Filiz Bikmen, 2006 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Istanbul

The global community foundation practice: Experiences, observations and implications for Turkey

Abstract:
Community foundations are expanding rapidly in the global context, in both developed and developing countries. This is indicative of a growing need in communities all over the world to create new ways of reaching donors and generating resources for Civil Society Organizations (CSOs). This paper seeks to examine the implications of global experience and the relevance of community foundation practices for Turkey.

The main questions investigated in this paper are: What are the similarities in terms of contextual factors (mainly social, economic and political), which have led to the establishment of community foundations in other countries? What are the experiences of community foundations in terms of fund development, grantmaking and convening? What are the relationships between community foundations and their key stakeholders? What are key operating challenges of community foundations? What are the key obstacles, risks, opportunities and implications of these experiences in considering the community foundation practice for Turkey?

The paper is aimed at presenting findings about the main functions and respective experiences of community foundations in various countries; identifying key findings related to the obstacles, risks, opportunities and implications for community foundations in Turkey; and proposing a general framework upon which a detailed feasibility study can be undertaken. The author argues that the framework for the feasibility study proposed in this report will determine the specific design of a community foundation according to the local context, which in turn will yield critical information upon which a sustainable community foundation practice can be established in Turkey.
 

Filiz Bikmen - Fuil text

Zeynep Meydanoğlu, 2010 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Istanbul

Turkish foundations: From vehicles of philanthropy to agents of change?

Abstract:
Over the centuries, foundations have gone from being the sole provider of key social services in the Ottoman Era, to catalysts and supporters of the Republic’s modernization process. Despite their ability to adapt, Turkish foundations have been hesitant when it comes to generating social change. At the same time, rising income inequality and demographic change necessitate Turkish foundations to become more involved with social causes. Zeynep Meydanoglu seeks to encourage the discussion of how Turkish foundations can contribute to achieving longer term systematic change and social justice in Turkey.

In the first section of the paper, Meydanoglu examines the theory and implementation of social justice philanthropy from an international perspective, looking at case studies in places like Brazil, Northern Ireland and New York. The second section brings in the Turkish context and assesses its potentials and limitations for adopting a social justice lens. The final section aims to act as a theory of change for Turkish foundations and Third Sector more generally by identifying suitable strategies and possible points of intervention. 

Ihor Ilko, 2003 Senior Fellow, Uzhgorod

Community foundation models for replication in the Ukraine

Abstract:
Ihor Ilko examined the US community foundation experience for lessons applicable to the Ukrainian philanthropic sector, despite differences in their legal and financial environments and scale of operations. Mr. Ilko explains that growing interest in community foundations in Ukraine is due in large part to the decline in the concept of the European welfare state and the resultant attention to non-governmental, decentralized models of social care. Factors identified as key to the successful development of community foundations include: institutional capacity, being deeply rooted in the community, and having the ability to demonstrate leadership within that community.

Ihor Ilko points to the example of Canada where large foundations or national associations have acted as “incubators” for newly established community foundations by providing know-how and matching grants for start up. He indicates that because Ukraine's nonprofit sector and emerging community foundations reveal growth patterns similar to those experienced by US foundations, they face similar challenges. By way of example, he cites the multi-ethnic environment facing the Carpathian Foundation and the foundation's efforts to diversify its board, staff, and programs in order to reflect the ethnic identity of the region. Similarly, he cites the common need to establish grant programs reflecting the needs of low- income citizens. Finally, he cites the establishment of regional networks and international associations that encourage information sharing and best practices as critical to the success of community foundations in Ukraine and beyond.

Joanna Bevan, 2013 Emerging Leaders Fellow, London, England

Resilience rainbow: What role can community foundations play in increasing community resilience

Abstract:
What makes a community resilient?

Understanding the dynamics of a community can help it to best adapt and grow in the face of sudden or sustained challenges, be it a natural disaster or an economic crisis. Interest in community resilience is emerging in civil society, the social sciences, and within government. This paper examines the nature of what makes a strong community, and how community foundations can help increase resiliency in their local areas.

Joanna Bevan forms the initial hypothesis that community foundations which undertake ‘community needs mapping’ are expanding their roles in civil society beyond that of traditional grant maker. She uses selected case studies as a lens to examine community resilience and to look at the role the respective foundations play in these contexts. The author builds a resilience framework with seven elements, which comprise what she calls the ‘Resilience Rainbow’, in order to explore the topic of community resilience.

Her paper focuses on case studies – from Canada, the U.S., Brazil, Mexico and Slovakia – of seven community foundations which have recently undertaken ‘community needs mapping’.

In her findings, Ms. Bevan maps the themes of the ‘Resilience Rainbow’ against those emerging from the case studies. The author goes on to analyse the differences in the foundations’ roles and the potential reasons for these. She concludes the paper with a look at why and how certain community foundations’ roles are evolving, with a focus on the ways their work has an impact on the resilience of their local communities.
 

Joanna Bevan - Full text

Catherine Elisabeth Elliott, 2009 Senior Fellow, Whalley Range, Manchester, England

Being alive to the potential benefits of collaborations and mergers

Abstract:
Ensuring the future sustainability of the United Kingdom’s community foundations by means of collaborations and mergers is important due to diminishing public sector funding and increasing competition between neighboring community foundations for those limited funds. Collaboration has become rarer due to the emergence of two tiers of community foundations within the United Kingdom. The first tier is dominated by established community foundations that operate across large geographical areas, such as Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and have endowments ranging from £1 million to £30 million. The second tier is made up of smaller, more local community foundations whose endowments range from £5,000 - £1 million.

This paper considers key motivations for mergers, current global practice and benefits and factors for success and failures. Catherine Elliot assesses models for community foundations that are considering merging, drawing on case studies from mergers in the United Kingdom and the United States in order to build on models of cooperation. The intention is to develop them further in order to contribute to community foundation merger strategies and best practices with an eye to future growth in the field.

Nurah W. Amat’ullah, 2010 Senior Fellow, New York, New York

A community foundation in the Bronx: A path towards transforming local communities and improving lives

Abstract:
In her paper, Ms. Amat’ullah, who is the founder and executive director of a faith-based community service organization focused on hunger relief, health education, transitional needs of new immigrants, and interfaith work in Bronx, New York, explores the possibility of establishing a community foundation in the Bronx that would significantly transform the lives of its residents. Her paper argues for the feasibility of a type of homegrown giving that is founded on heightened hometown pride. Such an approach challenges the dominant social narrative, which claims that socio-economically successful individuals are leaving the community.

The author critically examines entities in the Bronx which claim to be addressing the community’s needs by funneling resources, such as community development corporations. In addition, she provides a first- hand recounting of the lessons learned from the failed experience of a Bronx-based fund, PetroBronx, which was supported by a group of overseas donors.

Ms. Amat’ullah concludes that the research for this paper has helped her conceptualize an appropriate framework for establishing a community foundation, an organization dedicated to the cultivation of human, economic and cultural assets in the South Bronx—a community often perceived as synonymous with urban decay. Ms. Amat’ullah recommends that such a foundation adopt measures to increase the transparency of distributed funds, encourage the “buy-in” of time and resources by community members, and organize collective decision making where community members are given a voice about the direction of the foundation. Such measures could increase the legitimacy of community foundations among South Bronx residents.
 

Nurah W. Amat’ullah - Full text

Akira Barclay, 2012 Emerging Leaders Fellow, New York, New York

The value of giving circles in the evolution of community philanthropy. How community-based philanthropy can be strengthened by forging a bond between community foundations and Black giving circles in the United States

Abstract:
While most communities in the United States are made up of a colorful mosaic of race and ethnicity, age, knowledge, wisdom and experience, its philanthropic institutions are not so diverse. This lack of diversity hampers foundations’ impact on the communities they serve in complex ways. While the sector grapples with issues of diversity, community foundations in particular are faced with the challenge of increasing competition for donations. Meanwhile, more Black Americans are becoming visibly involved in philanthropy, starting foundations and opening donor-advised funds, and a movement has emerged to encourage them to give strategically for long-term systemic change on issues affecting their communities. In this paper, Akira J. Barclay investigates the growing trend of giving circles in the Black community and their relevance to community foundations.

Ms. Barclay explores the challenges facing community foundations today in failing to connect to the growing philanthropy among Blacks in the United States, and she sees an opportunity knocking with the renaissance of collective giving. Studies have shown that community foundations are not well-known or understood in the Black community, their activities are confused with those of public charities, and connections to community foundations are only made through professional advisors or personal experience. Ms. Barclay then profiles three giving circles: The Black Benefactors, in Washington, D.C.; A Legacy of Tradition (A LOT), in Raleigh, NC; and, New Generation of African-American Philanthropy, in Charlotte, NC. Many giving circle members have been born, raised and likely still reside in the community where they are making grants, and these grassroots philanthropists may have a deeper context for community issues and are more knowledgeable about the needs and nuances of the area. Likewise, giving circles are becoming more well-known in Black communities all over the United States because of their responsiveness, influence, impact on pressing issues, and hands-on role in working with grantees, lending technical assistance and building capacity.

Giving circles thus present a unique opportunity for community foundations to make headway in many of the key areas identified for making stronger connections to the Black philanthropic community. These include increased visibility, direct experience with Black professionals and entrepreneurs, relevance and legitimacy in the communities they serve, and trust. Ms. Barclay analyzes the existing challenges to partnerships between community foundations and giving circles, and offers recommendations to community foundations in cultivating relationships with giving circles.
 

Akira J. Barclay - Full text

Christina Bookhart, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Hamilton, New Jersey

The community foundation model and African American members of Generation X

Abstract:
In her paper, Christina Bookhart sets out four objectives: (1) to look at factors informing traditional giving among African Americans; (2) to identify ways to expand the philanthropic outlook of African American members of Generation X (aged 25-40); (3) to determine the extent to which philanthropic organizations can expect African American members of Generation X to engage with community foundations as donors, staff, and board members in the future; and (4) to identify themes within African American populations that may facilitate strategic giving and alliances to enhance the culture of giving in Southern New Jersey.

Although African Americans have a long and varied history of philanthropy that is characterized by collective giving, community assistance, and “uplifting the race,” African American engagement with community foundations is low. Ms. Bookhart makes the following recommendations to begin to remedy this:

  • Create an advisory board or committee at the local community foundation to facilitate the creation of a “Giving Across Generations” and/or a “Black Philanthropy Initiative”;
  • Create donor education programs that focus on financial health in order to build assets for black communities and their families;
  • Set up listening sessions with local communities, to determine how community foundations can help to promote philanthropy among youth and communities of color; and
  • Support diversity in community foundation staffs (including promotion of mentoring and leadership initiatives within the community).

Saché Cantu, 2007 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Washington, D.C.

A current assessment of the community foundation Latino dynamic: Viewing Latinos and consumers and producers of philanthropy

Abstract:
This paper seeks to explore the current dynamic vis a vis Latinos and community foundations. The United States is undergoing a substantial demographic shift that will make Latinos one quarter of the national population by mid-century. With increased numbers of U.S.-based Latinos, the potential for this community’s contribution to and consumption of philanthropic resources will be part of the national discussion that focuses on meeting social policy needs, as well as generating the resources that are required to respond. Community foundations, as a result of their dynamic and intermingled nature as grantmaker, fundraiser and convener, provide one philanthropic model that may be capable of addressing this growing segment of the population’s mounting potential as both philanthropists and service constituents.

The research seeks to answer the following questions: To what extent are U.S.-based Latinos socially and economically prepared to participate in organized philanthropy? What are community foundations currently doing to engage Latinos both as clients and potential donors? By way of conclusion, the authoroffers recommendations to address the upcoming challenges that community foundations are likely to encounter as they think about the ways they will forward working with diverse populations and with Latinos in particular. These include:

  • Building boards that are reflective of community foundations’ regional diversity
  • Honoring the importance of relationship building and the role that this playsin influencing Latinos’ willingness to give
  • Clarifying the community foundations’ non-grantmaking roles
  • Considering the importance of promoting scholarship funds or academic achievement programs as bridge-builders to span differences in socio-economic scale and generational giving preferences.

Francesca Aguiar Filippelli Carson, 2012 Emerging Leaders Fellow, New York, New York

Building for the future: Best practices and lessons learned from community foundations in establishing, managing, and cultivating donor support for an endowment

Abstract:
Due to the recent recession, many foundations and charities are struggling. Interest payments from investments are at an all-time low. Donors are wary of their contributions sitting in unsuccessful funds for the future, when they could be put to work through grants today. These factors lend urgency to the ever- present issue of sustainability among Third Sector organizations around the world. In this paper, Francesca Aguiar Carson investigates current trends, best practices and lessons learned from community foundations and diaspora giving organizations in establishing, managing, and cultivating donor support for an endowment within today’s philanthropic and economic climate.

Ms. Carson is tasked with developing recommendations for a suitable endowment strategy for BrazilFoundation, a grant-making and fundraising public charity with a young donor base which generates resources to support community-based projects across Brazil. The Foundation has invested more than $18 million over the past 12 years, mostly in comparatively small one-year grants, supporting the work of more than 300 social projects in Brazil. Ms. Carson draws on lessons from community foundations in order to gain perspective on how a public diaspora foundation like BrazilFoundation might best organize an endowment campaign.

Ever aware of balancing the demands of short-term need and long-term planning, and drawing on lessons learned from community foundations in the U.S., Canada, and Kenya, Ms. Carson concludes that BrazilFoundation is an example of an organization that could benefit from developing and introducing a ‘soft’ (or incremental) endowment strategy. The author emphasizes the importance of analyzing an organization’s current capacity together with other factors that might influence an endowment campaign – including knowledge about the age and cultural practices of a foundation’s potential donor base. In her recommendations she also points out that long-term sustainability may be achieved through means other than endowment building, including social enterprise and annual fundraising campaigns for pass-through funding.
 

Francesca Aguiar Carson - Full text

Joseph J. Gonzales, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The Philadelphia Foundation and Philadelphia’s changing Latino community

Abstract:
Joseph Gonzales's paper examines how a thirty-year “partnership” between The Philadelphia Community Foundation and Taller Puertorriqueño, a community-based, ethnic arts and educational center in Philadelphia, benefited the foundation, the community and its organizations. He writes that the benefits to Taller include enhanced organizational capacity and assistance in cultivating an array of local resources, whereas the foundation has earned increased respect from the Latino community, gaining access to potential board members.

Gonzales underscores the ways that art, culture, and educational attainment promote civic engagement. In the case of Taller Puertorriqueño, this has meant offering an array of programs that use art and culture to address issues in education, health, and the environment.

The case study is offered as an example of the reciprocal benefits of partnership for large institutions (grantors) and smaller grassroots agencies (grantees). He concludes that the model described has enhanced the capacity of both organizations to serve the city and the region's Latino community.


Julieta Méndez, 2006 Emerging Leaders Fellow, San Diego, California, United States

The role of US community foundations in promoting Mexican diaspora philanthropy

Abstract:
This study is an analysis of the different ways that U.S. community foundations can partner with Mexican hometown associations (HTAs) to promote local and transnational development. Author Julieta Méndez looks at a selected sample of twenty-one community foundations and public charities from states that have the highest presence of Mexican hometown associations and analyzes the degree of partnership and collaboration between agencies. Her research reveals that while there is an increasing recognition of the need to work with Mexican hometown associations both for local as well as transnational development, few foundations actually have ongoing partnerships. Facing this challenge, this study then goes on to evaluate how many community foundations are actually outreaching to the Latino communities. Based on those cases, Méndez presents recommendations for more effective means for community foundations to partner with Mexican HTAs. The recommendations include increasing grantmaking capacities, providing matching funds to donors to engage with a greater number of local community leaders, and setting up an alliance of hometown associations to further communication and networking.


Allyson Reaves, 2007 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Implementing lasting change: Building the impact of community foundations through programmatic initiatives

Abstract:
Taking as her starting point that devolution has transferred the responsibility of addressing community problems to local agencies, including community foundations, Ms. Reaves argues that community foundations of the 21st century have the unique opportunity to expand the response to community need by undertaking, what she calls, programmatic initiatives. These initiatives: 1) seek to directly improve conditions; 2) promote innovative, collaborative solutions that address both current and future needs of the community; 3) engage the community in crafting sustainable approaches to important issues; 4) highlight the importance of visionary community leadership in improving lives; and 5) fall outside a community foundation’s normal grant-making.

The author identifies the basic tools necessary to launch and evaluate a programmatic initiative resulting in two products. The first is a paper that defines programmatic initiatives and details three successful models demonstrated by the Community Foundation of the Lowcountry; The New York Community Trust; and Community Foundations of Canada. The second product is a manual that identifies practices for community foundations wishing to use a proactive strategy in designing, implementing, and sustaining programmatic initiatives.


Tasha Tucker, 2011 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Charleston, North Carolina

How philanthropy can engage the next generation of donors: Strategies for community foundations

Abstract:
Utilizing the skills and interests of the tech-savvy younger generation is critical to the future of community foundations. Community foundations have begun to make hesitant steps to engage younger generation participation. Such engagement is essential for foundations, yet presents new challenges. In her research, Tasha Tucker addresses the following questions: how do community foundations fit in with digitally connected individuals capable of creating their own networks? How does the next generation perceive community engagement and their philanthropic role? What type of cultivation methods should community foundations utilize to engage these potential donors? What do philanthropic leaders need to do to be effective in capturing the next generation of donors to engage with community foundations?

In this paper, Tucker reviews tendencies of the Millennial generation, those born between 1981 and the early 2000s, highlighting how technology and social networking shape youth choices. Tucker lists online charitable platforms, as well as online watchdog organizations which utilize the Millennials’ ability to network information through technology. Examples of next generation engagement initiatives are highlighted to provide examples from community foundations, philanthropic groups, and diaspora funds that are successful in drawing the participation of the next generation. From case studies, Tucker draws a series of general proposals that foundations should implement in order to recruit Millennials.


Yiu Kai Terence Yuen, 2002 International Fellow, Hong Kong

A comparative study of community foundations and the United Ways as examples of organized community philanthropy

Abstract:
The paper examines two models of organized philanthropy, namely community foundations and United Ways, which co-exist and undertake different roles in American society. By examining these two complementary yet competing models, the study analyzes the infrastructure and method of governance of organized community philanthropy in the United States. A typology of organized philanthropy is developed with reference to the ownership of the philanthropic institutions (public or private) and the nature of added benefits created by those institutions. In addition, an institutional model with multiple-level analysis is introduced for making sense of the infrastructure and governance arrangements of the philanthropic sector in American society.

The paper argues that the ultimate goal of community-based philanthropy should be to bridge the different processes of community building by matching available community resources with participatory problem-solving technique. Fundraising and endowment building alone are unable to achieve this goal. Comparing a community-focused development strategy for promoting local philanthropy with a donor- focused strategy, the author concludes that the ideal model of organized community philanthropy is one that can enhance the effectiveness of all other entities involved in the community building process.

Fabiana Hernández Abreu, 2007 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Montevideo

Community foundations: A vehicle to endorse and sustain local development processes taking place in Colonia Uruguay?

Abstract:
In this study Fabiana Hernández-Abreu examines the concept of community foundations through a local development lens and analyzes the conceptual relationship between them. She identifies novelties that the concept of community foundations would bring to the Uruguayan and local, Colonian, context, including: grantmaking foundations; fundraising within the community for long-term purposes (endowments); investing charitable donations in the financial market; building a culture of living; and strengthening local philanthropy. She also points to the importance of considering how legal and tax frameworks impact philanthropic practices.

The author explains that since the main purpose of studying community foundations as a concept is to endorse a process of local development, the only way for the concept of community foundations to be applied in Uruguay is to adopt the community-driven vision. Therefore certain challenges currently facing

U.S. community foundations would be addressed from the very beginning in Uruguay. Ms. Hernández- Abreu concludes that the analytical relationship between local development and the concept of community foundations reflects a coherency that makes it feasible to think that the community foundation concept has potential as a tool to endorse local development processes.

CORPORATE PHILANTHROPY

Benedict S. Cele, 2001 International Fellow, Durban, South Africa

Civil society and corporate involvement as partners in South Africa’s economic development, and the role for the Greater Durban Community Foundation

Abstract:
Benedict Cele examines the role of the private, public, and civic sectors in the economic development of the Durban Metropolitan Area in South Africa. He argues that community foundations are uniquely suited to the Durban region, and have the potential to bring these sectors together. Building on case studies and discussions of the corporate-nonprofit relationship, Cele concludes with recommendations for the newly established Greater Durban Community. These recommendations address the issues of governance, community involvement support, adequate levels of staffing, and the design of a grantmaking priorities and program.


Ellie Demopoulos, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Athens, Greece

Developing corporate social responsibility in Greece

Abstract:
Ellie Demopoulos draws on models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the US and Europe for the purpose of examining how effective CSR practices may be applied in Greece. In her paper she also looks at corporate partnerships with new and emerging community foundations to see how corporate involvement can help develop or sustain community foundations. Finally, she identifies the challenges to the growth of CSR in Greece, where the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs is responsible for coordinating the CSR effort.

Ms. Demopoulos' findings include the following:

  • CSR can play a vital role in helping businesses adopt more current and innovative community engagement practices;
  • Business partnerships with local authorities and the voluntary sector will become increasingly important in addressing societal challenges (such as long-term unemployment and integration of ethnic minorities into the workforce);
  • Community foundations are well placed to provide businesses with access to community networks and expertise; and
  • Examples from Ireland, Italy, Poland, and Russia indicate that corporate support is helping to establish new community foundations.

CSR can serve as a useful tool in building Third-Sector capacity, though it is a complex task that will require all players, including nonprofit organizations and politicians, to recast their roles. Business figures deciding in favor of CSR must be visionaries and have a firm understanding that corporate responsibility is more than an advertising or marketing tool, and that it has the potential to effectively address social issues.


Mahi Khallaf, 2008 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Cairo, Egypt

Community foundations as a vehicle for institutionalizing corporate philanthropy in Egypt’s new cities: A case study of 10th of Ramadan City

Abstract:
In this paper, Mahi Khallaf explores the possibility of launching a grantmaking community foundation that is largely, but not solely, funded by the corporate sector in the 10th of Ramadan City near Cairo, in Egypt. The 10th of Ramadan City is an ideal geographic area for a grantmaking community foundation in Egypt as it is an industrial city with a high concentration of high-net worth individuals who are already actively practicing corporate philanthropy in the form of ad-hoc and personal charitable activities such as building mosques, orphanages, and clinics. These initiatives are in most cases triggered by the business owners' altruistic inclinations rather than institutionalized corporate philanthropy practices.

For this paper, Khallaff carried out a review of existing data about community foundations worldwide. Key interviews were also carried out in Egypt with investors and members of the 10th of Ramadan Investors Association to get their feedback about the community foundation concept and its applicability in 10th of Ramadan City. An additional set of key informant interviews were also carried out with community foundation leaders and experts from the USA, Russia, Mexico, Kuwait and Brazil. This paper is a first attempt at putting forward a road map for the establishment of a grant-making endowed community foundation in the 10th Ramadan City.


Fikile B. Kuhlase, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Morelata Park, South Africa

Corporations, community, private-public sector partnerships (PPPs) and community foundations: The South African case

Abstract:
In her paper, Fikile Kuhlase discusses the emergent trend of corporations supporting community foundation-like organizations. She highlights the strategic intervention of the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC), a development finance institution. The IDC is described as the first corporation in South Africa to adopt the community foundation concept as part of its strategy for socio- economic transformation and “broad-based” black economic empowerment (BEE). Of note in the IDC model is that community foundations take up an equity stake in IDC-funded projects; the South African government through the Minister of Trade and Industry is the sole shareholder; and corporate social investment is viewed as central to business activity.

In conclusion, Ms. Kuhlase argues in favor of a model that places the community foundation at the center of a tripartite alliance between civil society and the private and public sectors. She concludes that community foundations are well positioned to take the lead in forging mutually beneficial partnerships in order to promote the common good, and describes community foundations that choose not to tackle social justice issues as wasting their potential to be catalysts for social change.


Helena Monteiro, 2006 Senior Fellow, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Business in the community:  The role of corporations in supporting community philanthropy

Abstract:
Helena Monteiro examines the ways that corporations can utilize their extensive resources to strategically match community needs for the benefit of all involved. She focuses her study on corporate collaboration with Community Philanthropy Organizations in Brazil.

Community Philanthropy Organizations (CPOs) are independent non-governmental nonprofit organizations designed to convene, connect and facilitate collaboration across sectors. As conveners and brokers, CPOs work to create a culture of local philanthropy, facilitate local development and sustainable social change. Ms. Monteiro explains that CPOs function in Brazil as quasi-community foundations (without the grantmaking component).

CPOs offer an enormous opportunity for corporate philanthropy because they:

  • offer broad knowledge and expertise on community issues and opportunities;
  • promote and facilitate social support networks and intersectoral collaboration;
  • are an autonomous and independent player in the community; and
  • offer accountability.

The challenges posed by business-nonprofit collaboration are based in part on stereotypes about the will of business and the ability of civil society organizations to address social problems. By working together to develop strategic alliances, both partners can address local needs while contributing to the development of Brazil’s nonprofit sector. This entails developing CPO-business relationships that go beyond donations and/or grants. Ms. Monteiro emphasizes the benefit of helping corporations develop a cohesive philanthropic strategy, and lists a variety of mechanisms for corporate giving, including cash contributions in the form of grants and donations, employee volunteerism, technical skills and technology.


Bhavna Ramrakhiani, 2000 International Fellow, Ahmedabad, India

Why multinational corporations give, how this might translate to the Indian setting, and how a community foundation might be structured in Gujarat

Abstract:
In the context of increasing wealth and widening income disparities between rich and poor caused by globalization, Bhavna Ramrakhiani's paper examines how the business sector, individual citizens, and NGOs can work together to improve the lives of the underprivileged in Gujarat, India. She identifies three tools that are necessary: capacity building in both the business and nonprofit sectors; collaboration; and voluntarism. The vehicle she sees as best suited to conduct this work is a modified community foundation, which, in the initial phase, would generate revenue through capacity-building training and then seek to build endowments.


Tatiana S. Sivaeva, 2002 International Fellow, Moscow, Russia

A comparative study of types of community-business-government partnerships for the allocation of corporate donations in local communities in the United States and in Russia

Abstract:
The work is based on the premise that the government, business, and nonprofit sectors are interdependent, thereby justifying the need for collaborative action to insure the well-being of communities everywhere. Particular attention is paid to the role that different intermediary organizations—including community foundations—play in coordinating the interests of business donors and their communities. The study suggests that bridging the divide that separates the corporate, government and nonprofit sectors is a major requirement for the development of philanthropy and philanthropic partnerships in Russia. Accordingly, it examines the role intermediary organizations should play in establishing-business- government-community partnerships to facilitate corporate philanthropy. Ms. Sivaeva suggests that a broader dialogue among the different types of intermediaries could have a profound effect on improving practices, strengthening the players, and promoting the ideology of corporate giving among the broader public. Community foundations in particular are identified by Ms. Sivaeva as having the potential to connect the interests of businesses with the long-term interests of their communities. Some of the features that would distinguish Russian community foundations from other intermediary organizations are their on financial accountability and transparency, their diversified board structure, and their greater opportunities for maintaining independence through building endowments. Finally, the author offers suggestions for the further development of community foundation leadership in working with Russian corporate donors.


Gisela Velasco, 1996 International Fellow, Manila, Philippines

Corporate philanthropy in Asia: The Philippine case: An overview of East and Southeast Asian philanthropy
 

Gisela Velasco - Full text

Felicitas von Peter, 2002 International Fellow, Gutersloh, Germany

Changing the way we do business—Community foundations and the competition for charitable assets

Abstract:
This research is set against the backdrop of changing socioeconomic developments in the last decade, especially the technology boom in the 1990s. Economic growth has fueled an expansion of philanthropic giving. However, increased giving has generated two particular challenges for community foundations: new donors require a more intense level of donor involvement; and from the new national donor advised funds (NDAFs) offered by financial institutions. Although community foundations have offered donor- advised funds since the late 1970s, it was the entrance of commercial institutions like Fidelity Investment into the field in 1992 that have helped make donor-advised funds one of the most popular giving vehicles for charity. The success of NDAFs has taken community foundations by surprise and provided some with a rather harsh wake-up call. In her research, Ms. von Peter investigates how community foundations are facing the challenges presented by NDAFs, and how they differ in their approach to donors, the types of services they provide, and their role within the community. She argues that the new entrants from the for- profit sector can ultimately result in strengthening the nonprofit sector by forcing community foundations to reposition themselves and focus on developing their role as intermediaries between donors and the community. The research also shows how some financial institutions like Merrill Lynch have come to a “working agreement” with community foundations. This leads the author to suggest that donor-advised funds could link the for-profit and the non-profit sectors, ultimately resulting in increased philanthropic funds for the community.

DIASPORA PHILANTHROPY

Priya Anand, 2003 International Fellow, Bangalor, India

Indian Hindu diaspora and religious philanthropy

Abstract:
Priya Anand documents the philanthropic role of the Hindu diaspora and the fundraising strategies used by Hindu religious institutions in the United States. Her study identifies where the philanthropic activities of temples and religious movements are directed (i.e. whether to India alone or also toward local causes); whether the beneficiaries are exclusively Indian; and whether these institutions serve as operating foundations or grantmakers. Her research includes a small-sample survey on philanthropic behavior to better understand donors' motivations for religious giving.

While many donors give because of their religious beliefs, Ms. Anand observes that the political climate made many donors wary of unwittingly supporting programs or causes that might covertly support “Hinduization.” In addition, many Indians donors prefer to make direct, personalized contributions. Based on her findings, she suggests that feedback on how donors' dollars are spent should be encouraged. Donor-designated funds may also be used to enhance giving by Indian Americans, enabling donors to contribute to programs or organizations of their choosing.


Meryem Senay Ataselim, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Ankara, Turkey

Contributions of the Turkish Disapora in the United States

Abstract:
Meryem Senay Ataselim looks at current trends in philanthropic giving to Turkey among the Turkish diaspora community in the United States and the motivations behind this giving. Her research is set against the backdrop of recent increases in the number of Turkish diaspora organizations in the United States, the pace of development of Turkey's nonprofit sector, and the perception that contributions from the Turkish diaspora are an important funding source for this development.

The objections most often cited by Turkish donors for not giving to Turkey include: difficulty in identifying appropriate organizations and monitoring their performance; lack of accountability and transparency, and professionalism in Turkey's nonprofit sector; the fact that donations do not always go to the projects for which they were given; and that gifts to Turkey often do not qualify for tax deductions.

Ms. Ataselim maintains that Turkish diaspora organizations will need to address these objections if they wish to put down roots and to tap the giving potential of the Turkish American community. Her recommendations to the organizations include:

  • Give preference to projects that are replicable and that reflect community needs;
  • Take advantage of electronic technologies to network and reach out to donors;
  • Provide donors with information about the organizations and the results of the projects they support;
  • Ask for money—despite a cultural shyness about the subject, asking for money is critical; and
  • Practice due diligence to ensure that donor dollars are spent wisely toward the projects for which they are intended.

Upala Devi Banerjee, 2004 Emerging Leaders Fellow, New Delhi, India

Engaging diaspora Indian women entrepreneurs in building sustainable mechanisms for gender issue support in India: Challenges and opportunities

Abstract:
Ms. Banerjee sought to explore the issue of sustainability for initiatives like the South Asian Women's Fund (SAWF) and the prospects for generating diaspora funding. Acknowledging that raising funds in the diaspora for gender-related issues faces many challenges, Ms. Banerjee offers specific recommendations on what is needed to build sustainable funding for gender rights and empowerment issues in South Asia . These include:

  • Increasing the availability of data about programs, services, policy, and research for women and girls in order to show that targeted giving makes a difference.
  • Evaluating programs that have been supported and highlighting their successes; and
  • Launching a peer-to-peer mentoring and communication program among Indian women entrepreneurs and their American counterparts.

Valia Garzón Díaz, 2002 International Fellow, Antigua, Guatemala

Guatemalan diaspora in the United States—the economic potential of Guatemalan-U.S. communities as a means of providing financial support for select social and cultural institutions in Guatemala

Abstract:
Increasingly, contributions by immigrants to their countries of origin contain not only family remittances but also monies dedicated to solving the social problems faced by the sending community. Valia Garzón Diaz's investigation is based on the need for social and cultural organizations in Guatemala to capitalize on these funds. It examines the potential of the Guatemalan diaspora in the US to support local and national efforts in Guatemala and debates the feasibility applying, to the Guatemalan diaspora, successful models of diaspora philanthropy developed by other groups and organizations. Garzón Diaz's recommendations focus on establishing, maintaining, strengthening relationships with other organizations in the US in order to share experiences and strategies. These include establishing a tie between the Guatemalan artistic community in the United States and the Centro de Investigaciones Regionales De Mesoamérica (CIRMA), as well as strengthening relationships between CIRMA and such diaspora organizations as the BrazilFoundation. A final recommendation involves the importance of finding ways to involve second and third generations of the diaspora in projects in their countries of origin.


Vu Thi Quynh Giao, 2013 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

How a local community foundation can help build NGO capacity in Vietnam: Tapping the potential contribution of Vietnamese-American diaspora philanthropy

Abstract:
Following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, a number of Vietnamese refugees settled in the US since forming a significant population of Vietnamese Americans—many of whom maintain strong ties with Vietnam through individual and collective forms of diaspora giving. In this research paper, author Vu Giao Thi Quynh attempts to categorize the most prominent models of diaspora philanthropy, in relation to three overarching factors that mediate the philanthropic process, i.e. diplomacy (US-Vietnam relations), trust (between Vietnamese Americans and the Vietnamese government, as well as the Vietnamese people), and identity (Vietnamese Americans’ identities as the Vietnamese Party-State projects and as they perceive themselves). She closes the paper with a list of recommendations for practitioners in regard to the mentioned mediators of diaspora philanthropy, while cautioning that the most important thing for Vietnamese American philanthropists to understand is Vietnam itself—full of uncertainties and complex developments of civil society.


Betania Gonçalves da Silva, 2008 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Recife, Brazil

How diaspora philanthropy meets community needs from identifying community needs to evaluating the outcomes in the home land

Abstract:
Transnational flows of money, multinational business, cross-border charity and remittances are not new phenomena. However, philanthropic giving from diaspora populations to the homeland and the work undertaken by institutionalized diaspora philanthropies are still under development. Diaspora populations are evolving and continually changing; people are seeking better jobs and educational opportunities in distant places, encouraging them to move more rapidly; transportation between countries is becoming more affordable for more people and so they are traveling greater distances. The studies undertaken to date prove that as immigrant wealth grows, so too their charitable giving—both to the homeland, as well as to their host country and new home.

In her paper, Ms. Gonçalves da Silva aims to advance understanding of how institutionalized diaspora philanthropy in the USA operates. Her study offers an overview on how diaspora philanthropy organizations in the United States identify community needs, monitor their efforts in promoting social changes, and evaluate the outcomes in the homeland. The paper focuses on American public charities and their work towards the diaspora populations as potential donors who, through their donations of money, time, in-kind resources, and knowledge are able to meet community needs. Finally the text and appendices provide a wealth of details —about the experiences, missions and financial data of formal diaspora philanthropy organizations serving African, Asian, Latin American, and European populations.


Catherine Kiganjo, 2006 Senior Fellow, Nairobi, Kenya

The role of community foundations in facilitating diaspora philanthropy (case study of KCDF in Kenya)

Abstract:
Catherine Kiganjo examines the role of U.S. community foundations in promoting diaspora philanthropy. She highlights the role community foundations in Kenya play in poverty reduction, sustainable development and social justice.

Focusing on members of the Kenyan diaspora living in the United States, Ms. Kiganjo suggests that these individuals represent untapped financial resources that may be channeled through community foundations to assist and improve communities back home. She presents Kenya Community Development Foundation as an example of a well-established community foundation, which seeks to promote a philanthropic framework in Kenya and provide a working model to test the effectiveness of giving by members of the African diaspora. The foundation has recently established a "Friends of KCDF" entity in the United States to support community development in Kenya.

Ms. Kiganjo’s research reveals that there is inadequate information on diaspora philanthropy in the African continent. She argues that there is need to establish a demographic profile and evaluate the Kenyan diaspora’s philanthropic potential. Among the recommendations she offers are:

  • develop the culture of organized giving among the Kenyan diaspora by promoting models that exist in the United States;
  • educate the diaspora about how endowments at Kenya Community Development Foundation promote sustainable development;
  • collaborate with existing organizations such as diplomatic missions and the Kenyan community abroad;
  • maximize the use of information technology to inform the diaspora about on-the-ground efforts by KCDF and others;
  • promote cause-related marketing (for donor-advised funds and endowments);
  • identify and review the regulatory requirements to ensure that communities in the diaspora are aware of new legal or political developments that could have an impact on fundraising efforts; and
  • ensure that recipient organizations are transparent and accountable in the utilization of public funds.

Snow (Hsueh-Lin) Lee, 2003 International Fellow, Taipei, Taiwan

Taiwanese-American diasapora philanthropy

Abstract:
Snow Lee argues that there is a need to rethink the scope of traditional philanthropy. Her research focuses on ways to capitalize on international connections and tap into resources within diaspora communities. She examines the ways in which Taiwan's nonprofit organizations (NPOs) might attract resources from the overseas Taiwanese community, provides examples of Taiwanese American philanthropy, and offers research strategies for studying other diaspora communities.

Concluding that the “trust” and “information” gaps are the most important obstacles to promoting diaspora philanthropy, Ms. Lee argues that Information Technology (IT) can play an important role in closing these gaps by providing information on the missions, annual and financial reports, and project goals of nonprofit organizations. She recommends the use of web portals to provide both donors and local Taiwanese intermediary organizations with a credible “trade mark” to encourage overseas giving. Increased use of a single Taiwanese web portal like that of the Himalaya Foundation could help reduce duplication of efforts among NPOs.


Esther Lethlean, 2001 International Fellow, Melbourne, Australia

Models of diaspora philanthropy, including examination of issues of self-identification and the benefits of community involvement across borders

Abstract:
For the purposes of her study, Esther Lethlean defines diaspora philanthropy as direct or indirect giving from an individual or group that identifies with an original homeland. She provides case studies of three models of diaspora philanthropy: private foundations, public charities, and international intermediaries. In all cases, a group's identification with and emotional commitment to their original homeland was essential for the establishment, funding, and longevity of diaspora giving. While each diaspora community should adopt a model appropriate to its culture of giving, and national legal and fiscal requirements, the author provides universally applicable recommendations for the success of diaspora philanthropy.


Marlene Lewis, Jamaica, 2003 International Fellow, Kingston, Jamaica

Diaspora philanthropy and strategic linkages to organized philanthropy in Jamaica – the case of Jamaican alumni associations

Abstract:
Jamaica's labor migration has created a large migrant community, concentrated largely in New York, and a growing tradition of diaspora philanthropy. Through her research, Marlene Lewis examines the philanthropic practices of Jamaican alumni organizations, a significant subset of the social welfare organizations created in the Jamaican diaspora. These organizations (in the US and Canada) have consistently served Jamaica in the areas of disaster relief, health, education, and community development. Ms. Lewis's study focuses on three main areas of their operations: philanthropic practices, factors influencing their philanthropic practices, and the potential for expanding collaborative networks.

Ms Lewis's model is the Union of Jamaican Alumni Associations in New York, a fundraising and grantmaking collaborative that was created out of the recognition that small organizations are often not able to sustain an adequate flow of funds. Her paper shows how a small but committed group of alumni organizations can provide critical support to a highly undercapitalized nonprofit sector. These alumni organizations solicit their funding almost exclusively from within Jamaican and Caribbean communities. While maintaining the independence of the individual organizations, they have successfully collaborated as a distribution mechanism for Jamaican diaspora funds.


Timothy James Magowan, 2007 Senior Fellow, Belfast, Northern Ireland

Creating sustainable structures to facilitate diaspora philanthropy

Abstract:
In his position paper, James Magowan explores current trends in diaspora giving and explains how increasing interest in international giving facilitated by technological developments, will require new and innovative models to facilitate diaspora philanthropy.

The author focuses his discussion on motivations for giving and the various mechanisms available. He discusses the strategic implications and challenges for community foundations, and provides a brief description of the Irish and Ulster-Scots diaspora in the U.S. The author concludes by recommending practical steps that the Community Foundation for Northern Ireland could take to develop its role in facilitating diaspora philanthropy.

Sufficient structures exist, as does widespread interest; what is needed, Magowan argues, is a seamless network from diaspora donor through intermediary to groups and projects in the homeland. The key to success will not only be the identification and cultivation of the diaspora but the on-going engagement of donors.

In conclusion, Magowan posits that community foundations can counteract the dis-intermediating influence of the internet by demonstrating the value added by community foundations, in particular with respect to local knowledge and experience. In the case of the Community Foundation for Northern Ireland, this is likely to mean drawing on institutional experience in relation to peace-building and conflict resolution which has extended beyond grant-making, through development and research, to policy impact. Finally, he urges making use of local and international networks of foundations, advisory organizations, giving circles, etc. to broaden the reach of the community foundation’s work across borders.


Jayaram K. Manivannan, 2006 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Andhra Pradesh, India

The receptivity of diaspora organizations in the United States and NGOs in India to the concept of virtual leadership in transnational philanthropy

Abstract:
In this paper, Jayaram Manivannan presents an innovative vehicle for diaspora philanthropy, termed as Virtual Leadership. He argues that members of the Indian diaspora have the potential, wealth, know-how, and the will to impact the development process in India. Manivannan argues that technology and falling costs of connectivity, in combination with societal conditions provide a favorable context for technological interventions by diaspora populations. The paper presents case studies of diaspora groups in New York and collective interaction among diaspora communities over the internet, including Mexican and Chinese- Americans. From such case studies, Manivannan sets out a series of expectations regarding the role of members of the Indian diaspora in shaping the social sector of India, and the impact of online interaction on villages/towns/communities. Finally, a set of recommendations is presented, including the need for Virtual Leadership to be employed in diverse areas of India to promote the legitimacy of philanthropy organizations, and for diaspora leaders to reach out to local partners in India.


Julieta Mendez, 2006 Emerging Leaders Fellow, San Diego, California, United States

The role of US community foundations in promoting Mexican diaspora philanthropy

Abstract:
This study is an analysis of the different ways that U.S. community foundations can partner with Mexican hometown associations (HTAs) to promote local and transnational development. Author Julieta Méndez looks at a selected sample of twenty-one community foundations and public charities from states that have the highest presence of Mexican hometown associations and analyzes the degree of partnership and collaboration between agencies. Her research reveals that while there is an increasing recognition of the need to work with Mexican hometown associations both for local as well as transnational development, few foundations actually have ongoing partnerships. Facing this challenge, this study then goes on to evaluate how many community foundations are actually outreaching to the Latino communities. Based on those cases, Méndez presents recommendations for more effective means for community foundations to partner with Mexican HTAs. The recommendations include increasing grantmaking capacities, providing matching funds to donors to engage with a greater number of local community leaders, and setting up an alliance of hometown associations to further communication and networking.


Nashon Otieno Aluoka Ogolla, 2001 International Fellow, Nairobi, Kenya

Diaspora philanthropy – and exploration of the possibilities for trans-Atlantic giving by Africans and African Americans through community foundations

Abstract:
Otieno Aluoka Nashon Ogolla discusses trends in philanthropic giving to Africa by African Americans and immigrants, and suggests ways the community foundation model might be applied to the African diaspora. He discusses current areas of need in Africa, and evaluates various philanthropic models, concluding with recommendations for improving diaspora giving. He suggests, among other things, that “reconstruction” in Africa will require reciprocity and conscious cooperation between the two communities. Economic opportunities for African Americans are also key to establishing a sufficient net base of philanthropic resources.


Kristyna Pichova, 2002 International Fellow, Prague, Czech Republic

Czech-American philanthropy and the potential of Czech community foundations to serve as a magnet for diaspora philanthropy

Abstract:
Set against the background of the Czech Republic 's transition from a communist system to a democratic one, the research considers new sources of funding to support the country's developing nonprofit sector. Although still young, the Czech-nonprofit sector plays an important role in free market development with democracy and civil society. Because individual giving and corporate philanthropy are not well developed, and government sources favor supporting the “old type,” state-founded institutions, Czech funders and NGOs are trying to address and attract new donors. Apart from encouraging corporate and individual giving in the Czech Republic, the Czech diaspora appears as a potential new source of funding for the young Czech civic sector.

Suggesting that in a modem globalized and electronically-connected world community need not always be geographically defined, the paper examines the potential of community foundations to encourage and channel diaspora giving. While keeping in mind the challenges associated with the highly assimilated Czech American communities, Ms. Pichova documents several examples of North American community foundations engaged in or forming partnerships likely to facilitate diaspora philanthropy. She concludes that there is great potential in linking regions in the Czech with regions in the US based on existing community foundations and/or Sister City relations in order to foster stronger ties between the Czech Republic and the communities in the US to which Czechs immigrated.


Christoph Wilcke, 2002 International Fellow, Munich, Germany

Philanthropic activity among the diaspora community of Arab Americans as an indicator of group identity

Abstract:
At a time in history when Arab identity is a matter of global interest, this study seeks to use philanthropy— the giving of time and money—among members of the United States' diverse Arab American communities as an indicator for their identity as Arabs. For this paper, Mr. Wilcke combined research of the public records of Arab American organizations, both nationally and locally, with field research in Brooklyn , New York. The most challenging question in this research examined philanthropic motivations. Religion provided the strongest common focus for Arab Americans. This philanthropy is not always channeled toward Islamic organizations, reflecting that many Eastern Orthodox churches reside in Middle Eastern countries (the Chaldeans in Iraq, the Maronites in Lebanon, the Copts in Egypt, etc). Other foci for philanthropy were the needs of newly arrived immigrants (language instruction and employment guidance); professional interests; and preserving Arab culture and heritage.

GIVING CIRCLES

Akira Barclay, 2012 Emerging Leader Fellow, New York, New York, United States

The value of giving circles in the evolution of community philanthropy. How community-based philanthropy can be strengthened by forging a bond between community foundations and Black giving circles in the United States

Abstract:
While most communities in the United States are made up of a colorful mosaic of race and ethnicity, age, knowledge, wisdom and experience, its philanthropic institutions are not so diverse. This lack of diversity hampers foundations’ impact on the communities they serve in complex ways. While the sector grapples with issues of diversity, community foundations in particular are faced with the challenge of increasing competition for donations. Meanwhile, more Black Americans are becoming visibly involved in philanthropy, starting foundations and opening donor-advised funds, and a movement has emerged to encourage them to give strategically for long-term systemic change on issues affecting their communities. In this paper, Akira J. Barclay investigates the growing trend of giving circles in the Black community and their relevance to community foundations.

Ms. Barclay explores the challenges facing community foundations today in failing to connect to the growing philanthropy among Blacks in the United States, and she sees an opportunity knocking with the renaissance of collective giving. Studies have shown that community foundations are not well-known or understood in the Black community, their activities are confused with those of public charities, and connections to community foundations are only made through professional advisors or personal experience. Ms. Barclay then profiles three giving circles: The Black Benefactors, in Washington, D.C.; A Legacy of Tradition (A LOT), in Raleigh, NC; and, New Generation of African-American Philanthropy, in Charlotte, NC. Many giving circle members have been born, raised and likely still reside in the community where they are making grants, and these grassroots philanthropists may have a deeper context for community issues and are more knowledgeable about the needs and nuances of the area. Likewise, giving circles are becoming more well-known in Black communities all over the United States because of their responsiveness, influence, impact on pressing issues, and hands-on role in working with grantees, lending technical assistance and building capacity.

Giving circles thus present a unique opportunity for community foundations to make headway in many of the key areas identified for making stronger connections to the Black philanthropic community. These include increased visibility, direct experience with Black professionals and entrepreneurs, relevance and legitimacy in the communities they serve, and trust. Ms. Barclay analyzes the existing challenges to partnerships between community foundations and giving circles, and offers recommendations to community foundations in cultivating relationships with giving circles.
 

Akira J. Barclay - Full text

Myrna Cacho, 2017 International Fellow on Community Philanthropy, Philippines

Filipino Migrant Women’s Giving Circle: Power from the Periphery
 

RELIGION AND PHILANTHROPY

Priya Anand, 2003 International Fellow, Bangalor, India

Indian Hindu diaspora and religious philanthropy

Abstract:
Priya Anand documents the philanthropic role of the Hindu diaspora and the fundraising strategies used by Hindu religious institutions in the United States. Her study identifies where the philanthropic activities of temples and religious movements are directed (i.e. whether to India alone or also toward local causes); whether the beneficiaries are exclusively Indian; and whether these institutions serve as operating foundations or grantmakers. Her research includes a small-sample survey on philanthropic behavior to better understand donors' motivations for religious giving.

While many donors give because of their religious beliefs, Ms. Anand observes that the political climate made many donors wary of unwittingly supporting programs or causes that might covertly support “Hinduization.” In addition, many Indians donors prefer to make direct, personalized contributions. Based on her findings, she suggests that feedback on how donors' dollars are spent should be encouraged. Donor-designated funds may also be used to enhance giving by Indian Americans, enabling donors to contribute to programs or organizations of their choosing.


Marwa El-Daly, 2001 International Fellow, Cairo, Egypt

The religious and cultural traditions of Islamic philanthropy, with an emphasis on institutionalized giving and the possibilities for a system for international philanthropy

Abstract:
Islamic philanthropy has a long cultural and religious tradition to which new models of giving can be applied. Marwa El-Daly suggests that Muslim communities in the United States, with their experience with institutionalized philanthropy and an encouraging legal environment, could provide a new model of modern Islamic philanthropy; the Islamic diaspora has strong potential partnering with organizations in developing countries. El-Daly makes recommendations on her case studies, stressing: cooperation between government and civil society, as well as Islamic organizations; the importance of research and information sharing; and advocacy.


Amelia Fauzia, 2009 Senior Fellow, Jakarta, Indonesia

Community foundations in Indonesia:  Strategies towards their development in a faith-based context

Abstract:
Community foundations are gaining importance globally due to their ability to facilitate social change through grants. Many philanthropy organizations in the US retain their faith-based identity, although US legal definitions of community foundations support non-sectarianism. In her paper Amelia Fauzia explores community foundations within a faith-based context in order to find strategies for developing such foundations in Indonesia. She questions how community foundations deal with faith-based communities; if and how community foundations have adapted to faith-based giving and traditions, and what strategies can be used to integrate traditional faith-based philanthropy into the wider world of community foundations.

This research is qualitative, employing four case studies of community foundations or community foundation-like organizations including the Jewish Community Foundation of San Diego and the Maadi Waqfiyat of Egypt. The paper proposes two distinct strategies for developing community foundations in Indonesia, the first for those with non-faith affiliation and the second for faith-based organizations. The second strategy is aimed toward transforming community-based Islamic philanthropic organizations in Indonesia into community foundations. Fauzia concludes her paper by recommending that Indonesia adopt regulations and incentives to promote the development of both faith-based and secular community foundations.

SOCIAL JUSTICE

Sarah Chilvers, 2003 International Fellow, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Community-based art programs and social justice grantmaking

Abstract:
Sarah Chilvers attempts to draw an explicit link between social justice philanthropy and community-based art (defined as the process of collective art making whereby members of a community come together to co-create art in response to a community issue). As she explains, “Art has the ability to draw people into participating within the democratic process.” It can also develop social capital, increase civic dialogue, and foster community organizing.

Ms. Chilvers offers suggestions for how foundations can support these activities, which she defines as initiatives that 1) inspire and mobilize individuals or groups; 2) educate and inform participants about themselves and the world; 3) build and improve community capacity and/or infrastructure; and 4) have the capacity to nurture and heal people and their communities. She encourages community foundations to work through local, regional and national networks of grantmakers to fund community-based art projects as a means of promoting social justice, and to convene groups of artists and local organizations to build public awareness of their value.


Jude McCann, 2011 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Belfast, Northern Ireland

Evaluating trends to increased advocacy for social justice

Abstract:
This paper considers how community foundations can better serve as advocates for marginalized and underrepresented groups of people. At stake is whether community foundations will be able to address the root causes of social problems or merely deal with symptoms. Jude McCann argues that by adopting the role of social advocate, community foundations can shape the way resources are allocated within society. In practice, social advocacy would manifest itself in activities like lobbying, voter registration, and community organizing.

McCann examines how three community foundations have retooled their operations towards social advocacy. These case studies include the Community Foundation for Northern Ireland, the Long Island Community Foundation in New York, and the Hamilton Community Foundation in Canada. From his case studies, McCann draws recommendations for community foundations. These recommendations include the adoption of social justice rhetoric, dialogue with neighborhoods and communities being serviced by foundations, and a restructured communication strategy to reassure donors and board members of the advantages of a social advocacy model. McCann also argues that community foundation members should be briefed about the legality of social advocacy, since foundations often misinterpret laws to mean that community foundations are not allowed to engage in social advocacy.

STRENGTHENING THE NONPROFIT SECTOR / CIVIL SOCIETY

Benedict S. Cele, 2001 International Fellow, Durban, South Africa

Civil society and corporate involvement as partners in South Africa’s economic development, and the role for the Greater Durban Community Foundation

Abstract:
Benedict Cele examines the role of the private, public, and civic sectors in the economic development of the Durban Metropolitan Area in South Africa. He argues that community foundations are uniquely suited to the Durban region, and have the potential to bring these sectors together. Building on case studies and discussions of the corporate-nonprofit relationship, Cele concludes with recommendations for the newly established Greater Durban Community. These recommendations address the issues of governance, community involvement support, adequate levels of staffing, and the design of a grantmaking priorities and program.


Ritu Mohan, 2001 International Fellow, New Delhi, India

Civil society resources organizations as a means for business, civil society, and the nonprofit sector to work together to frame solutions to community problems

Abstract:
Ritu Mohan's essay focuses on the application of the community foundation (or Civil Society Resource Organization) model toward mobilizing resources for the local community in Delhi, India. The author describes some of the best examples of cross-sectoral collaborations in the Philippines, Africa, and the United States, and how these models have ensured civic participation. To meet the challenges of globalization, she suggests a partnership between civil society, the nonprofit sector, and business. Her proposals are aimed at encouraging citizen action through (1) training and development inputs; (2) organizational cooperation and collaboration; and (3) employee-related programs and volunteering. She concludes that urban India, with its resources, must learn from global experiences of collective action and apply innovative approaches to sustain community development and deliver equitable growth.


Marcela Orvañanos de Rovzar, 2003 Senior Fellow, Mexico City, Mexico

Development of a structured giving mechanism to support nonprofit organizations working in Mexico City to solve critical community problems

Abstract:
Citing the need for community funding organizations that fit Mexico's unique philanthropic traditions, Marcela Orvañanos de Rovzar proposes to create a fund modeled on US community foundations, but consistent with Mexico's weak foundation sector. In her paper, Ms. Orvañanos de Rovzar presents a plan for creating the FONDEA philanthropic fund as a public foundation that would serve as a mechanism through which the private sector could support selected socioeconomic development initiatives in Mexico. The proposed fund would work in coordination with public programs and in close collaboration with nonprofit organizations and the community.

Because Mexico's Third Sector lacks a clearly defined legal structure and system of support, Marcela Orvañanos de Rovzar argues that Mexican nonprofits require increased financial support, better administration, and improved evaluation and monitoring mechanisms. She proposes to establish a grantmaking organization aimed at helping to address critical community problems, and at the same time that would constitute a useful model for institutionalized giving within the philanthropic sector. The proposed FONDEA fund would work to improve social awareness through donor development, teaching people how to give effectively regardless of economic background, gender or age. It would provide people with professional and monitored alternatives through which they could contribute to the well-being of their communities. Her paper includes an implementation plan that touches among other issues, on the incorporation process and seed capital, fund structure, grantmaking, and personnel.


Elizabeth Phocas, 2007 Senior Fellow, Athens, Greece

Developing philanthropy and strengthening civil society in Greece

Abstract:
In her paper, Ms. Phocas explores the emerging trend of grantmaking institutions that aspire to be strategic and developmental. Her aim is two-fold: first, to present the vast scope and diversity of models within which philanthropic activities are conducted and, second, to explore the possibility of creating a not-for-profit grantmakers’ association in Greece. The author suggests that such a support structure will provide a platform and the leadership for networking, coordination, advocacy, education for philanthropic public benefit organizations, the private sector, and individuals, and will respond to the need of strengthening civil society.

Ms. Phocas offers a brief assessment of civil society and the foundations sector in Greece, and then a brief assessment of recent trends in the way philanthropy operates including a typology of the umbrella organizations. She argues that there is a need to go beyond strengthening the engagement of the grantmaking sector in community development and civil society, and that Greece's philanthropic actors need to better adapt to the current worldwide trends if they hope to improve their work and to win increased citizen support and civic participation.

Based on the above analysis, she proposes the implementation of a mapping study on the potentials of establishing a grantmakers association in Greece. She offers a set of recommendations on how to move in this direction:

  • Examine whether the grantmakers community is favorable towards such a scheme and ways it would be sustainable.
  • Conduct interviews with main stakeholders;
  • Undertake a comparative study regarding the experience of other countries with donors’ support institutions (structure, membership, role, financing etc);
  • Look to international umbrella organizations (e.g. WINGs, EFC) for advice on establishing membership associations;
  • Connect with other practitioners around the globe (e.g. through the Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society’s network and listserv or the Synergos’ Institute’s Senior Fellows program) to tap into knowledge and experience with newly founded institutions of philanthropy.

The author also emphasizes the importance of promoting public awareness among Greeks about organized philanthropy and recent institutional trends. Some initiatives that could help toward that direction include: facilitating the participation of young emerging leaders in training seminars and fellowships on organized philanthropy and community foundations in order to increase the Greek pool of knowledge in this arena; organizing a conference in Athens to discuss the role of philanthropy and ways it can help to strengthen civil society; and encouraging coverage of philanthropy in the Greek press.

Finally, Ms. Phocas proposes that since community foundations have proven to be an excellent and flexible vehicle towards building strong civil societies in many countries, that a feasibility study on the potential of adapting the community foundation concept in the Greek context could be examined either in the context of creating a grant makers association or independently.


Sheng-shu Jack Shen, 2001 International Fellow, Taipei, Taiwan

E-philanthropy:  The benefits and challenges of information technology for the nonprofit sector

Abstract:
In this paper, Sheng-shu Jack Shen describes the benefits and challenges of Information Technology for nonprofit organizations. To help enable nonprofits to make use of this technology, Shen provides detailed discussions of the technology itself and its uses: hardware and software; intranet and internet; fundraising and membership building, etc. To help deal with the problems faced by nonprofits using Information Technology, and to begin to address the digital divide among these organizations, he proposes the establishment of Nonprofit Technology Centers that might work with or within community foundations.


I-Wen Wang, 2002 International Fellow, Taipei, Taiwan

How foundations are using capacity building and leadership programs to strengthen the nonprofit sector

Abstract:
At a time when foundations are faced with increased expectations and pressure to identify critical social issues and strengthen Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), the need to attract and retain quality personnel is critical. Arguing that human capital is an organization’s most important resource, Ms. Wang seeks to provide an overview of grants and capacity-building programs based on a combination of case studies, a literature review, and interviews. Taking into consideration program design, implementation, and evaluation, Ms. Wang chose five representative models: The Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the Synergos Institute, the Ford Foundation, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and the Chicago Foundation for Women. Each of these organizations has developed materials and programs designed to build capacity and leadership among their own staffs or those of their grantees. The selected cases illuminate the grantmakers’ role in the promotion and support of organizational effectiveness and efficiency, and are intended to stimulate discussion among practitioners, specifically foundation program officers. In her paper she examines what is unique about the selected grant-making foundations and identifies programs that may provide replicable models for Taiwan, asserting that in spite of the cultural differences, the challenges are very similar. Finally, Ms. Wang indicates that capacity building simultaneously empowers CSOs and enhances the level of trust and honesty.


Marion Webster,  2003 Senior Fellow, Melbourne, Australia

Developing a strategy and range of tools to assist community foundations in the United Kingdom and Australia in building an endowment.

Abstract:
Marion Webster looks at the challenges of sustainability that community foundations face as they seek to promote civil society and improve the well-being of their communities, particularly in under-developed countries and small rural communities. She identifies two main approaches taken by community foundations—donor focused and community focused—that may affect the ways community foundations define and carry out their missions. Regardless of where a foundation chooses to position itself on this continuum, Marion Webster argues that a successful community foundation needs to develop a locally- raised permanent endowment (as ultimately this will give the foundation both independence and credibility). In addition to endowment size and the dollar value of its grantmaking, she identifies other measures of community foundation success, including, but not limited to:

  • establishing a high level of trust with both donors and grantees;
  • a Board reflective of the makeup of the community, and a CEO and staff that champion community needs;
  • the ability to add value to donors' gifts through knowledge of the community, research capabilities, and staff expertise;
  • evidence of a leadership and public convening role; and
  • an organization's ability to bring about positive social change within its community.

Ms. Webster also discusses the importance of building a culture of giving within one's community and finding new ways of working with professional advisors and commercial charitable gift funds. While arguing that clarity of mission and strategic planning will help many community foundations achieve sustainability over time, she raises concerns about the impact of those that fail upon the credibility of the community foundation concept as a whole.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Kostandina Këruti, 2020 Emerging Leaders International Fellow, Tirana

The role of community foundations in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

Abstract:
Community foundations worldwide are working to address immediate and long-term pressing issues within their communities. In light of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—which calls individuals, communities, and public and private institutions to action—community foundations are important players that fully embrace the concept of “leave no one behind”. This research paper intends to answer two key questions:
(i) Are community foundations embracing in their work the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) framework?
(ii) What is the role of community foundations in education and engagement of the local community to contribute to SDGs?

Kostandina Këruti - full text

WOMEN AND GIVING

Eva A. Maina Ayiera, 2010 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Nairobi, Kenya

Women organized: Building community in ‘resource-challenged’ settings [the example of Kenya]

Abstract:
Women’s merry-go-rounds or chamas have become an integral part of community life in Kenya. Chamas are self-help groups that seek to boost the economic capabilities of their members. They have facilitated economic empowerment for women and their families, particularly at the grassroots where patriarchy and the subjugation of women are common. In this paper, Eva A. Maina Ayiera investigates the potential of women’s chamas to shape community giving patterns and empower women. In developing countries and in Kenya specifically, women stand on the periphery of community development designs. Their exclusion has hampered effective national and community development. At the same time, local communities are grappling with state apathy in facilitating community development. Institutionalized philanthropy, especially when tied to local groups like the chamas, presents a compelling case for direct citizen engagement in addressing the welfare challenges and improving their lives, without usurping the government’s role or responsibilities.

Ms. Ayiera includes in her paper a series of recommendations of how chamas and other women’s groups can be supported within Kenya. These recommendations include: documenting and sharing narratives of specific women within chamas; encouraging established institutions like the Kenya Community Development Foundation to partner with chamas; and connecting chamas with other on-the-ground women’s groups that combine community empowerment and goals of social improvement.


Upala Devi Banerjee, 2004 Emerging Leaders Fellow, New Delhi, India

Engaging diaspora Indian women entrepreneurs in building sustainable mechanisms for gender issue support in India: Challenges and opportunities

Abstract:
Ms. Banerjee sought to explore the issue of sustainability for initiatives like the South Asian Women's Fund (SAWF) and the prospects for generating diaspora funding. Acknowledging that raising funds in the diaspora for gender-related issues faces many challenges, Ms. Banerjee offers specific recommendations on what is needed to build sustainable funding for gender rights and empowerment issues in South Asia . These include:

  • Increasing the availability of data about programs, services, policy, and research for women and girls in order to show that targeted giving makes a difference.
  • Evaluating programs that have been supported and highlighting their successes; and
  • Launching a peer-to-peer mentoring and communication program among Indian women entrepreneurs and their American counterparts.

Jung-Rin Kim, 2000 International Fellow, Seoul, South Korea

Ways to expand the funding base of women’s NGOs in Korea through the development of a women’s foundation

Abstract:
Jung-Rin Kim's study is designed to identify strategies for the development and sustainability of Korean women's organizations by examining the history and experience of women's foundations in the United States. She applies the community foundation model to an affinity (as opposed to a geographic) grouping. Kim notes that “Men control most of the economic and social capital and most capital is concentrated in a few major cities.” Therefore, women's organizations are underfunded and heavily dependent on volunteer time. Kim develops a tri-focused strategy for Korean community foundations. They should serve as resource monitors, programmatic initiators, and most importantly as trainers to overcome the sector's lack of organizational and professional capacity. She lists three conditions necessary for the establishment of women's community foundations: the involvement of dedicated community leadership; the amendment of the legal framework to facilitate corporate involvement in the community foundation movement; and the willingness of those involved to sustain their commitment over a long period of time. The last point is drawn directly from the Russian experience which, like Korea, is still in the process of transition from an authoritarian to democratic form of governance.


Ndana Bofu-Tawamba, 2017 Senior Fellow, Nairobi, Kenya

Engineering an alternative feminist business model: Building regenerative community philanthropy in Africa

Abstract:
This paper seeks to provide some experiential and critical analysis for regenerative, women-centric and durable approaches to sustaining women’s rights work through private sector funding. The author points to the entry of private-public partnerships as well as the interest by private sector actors in the development and women’s rights spheres as a progressive move towards realizing not only development goals but also gender justice. The author proffers that using a regenerative business model of engagement targeting women’s economic empowerment allows women the means to enhance their security, incomes, and ownership and control of their destinies. This in turn would lead to their making meaningful investments in their spheres of influence through supporting community philanthropy on issues close to their hearts and realities. By providing women with opportunities for trade, employment, business and learning, development stakeholders that include the private sector have higher chances of positively influencing their institutional goals, be it through profit or organizational development, as well as national and local development goals. The author makes a case, therefore, for companies and corporations to consider women as integral to their business strategies.

YOUTH, NEW TECHNOLOGY AND PHILANTHROPY

Christina Bookhart, 2005 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Hamilton, New Jersey, United States

The community foundation model and African American members of Generation X

Abstract:
In her paper, Christina Bookhart sets out four objectives: (1) to look at factors informing traditional giving among African Americans; (2) to identify ways to expand the philanthropic outlook of African American members of Generation X (aged 25-40); (3) to determine the extent to which philanthropic organizations can expect African American members of Generation X to engage with community foundations as donors, staff, and board members in the future; and (4) to identify themes within African American populations that may facilitate strategic giving and alliances to enhance the culture of giving in Southern New Jersey.

Although African Americans have a long and varied history of philanthropy that is characterized by collective giving, community assistance, and “uplifting the race,” African American engagement with community foundations is low. Ms. Bookhart makes the following recommendations to begin to remedy this:

  • Create an advisory board or committee at the local community foundation to facilitate the creation of a “Giving Across Generations” and/or a “Black Philanthropy Initiative”;
  • Create donor education programs that focus on financial health in order to build assets for black communities and their families;
  • Set up listening sessions with local communities, to determine how community foundations can help to promote philanthropy among youth and communities of color; and
  • Support diversity in community foundation staffs (including promotion of mentoring and leadership initiatives within the community).

Henrique Conca Bussacos, 2012 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Florianopolis, Brazil

Promoting youth civil engagement through Web-based games

Abstract:
People spend three billion hours a week playing online games, and in this paper Henrique Conca Bussacos argues that some of this activity can be diverted into building civic engagement. Bussacos draws on recent research about “gamification,” where creating games in previously non-game contexts changes behavior on the part of participants. While gamification for the purpose of civic engagement is still in its infancy, practitioners in education have long found turning lessons into games as beneficial to encouraging student engagement. Games based around social causes or disaster relief can encourage empathy on the part of players toward victims, although Bussacos acknowledges the potential of an awareness campaign built around entertaining players to trivialize a crisis like earthquake relief. However, the advantages of such a game approach can be compared to those of microfinance, according to Bussacos, where large numbers of potential stake holders can be organized around promoting large- scale change through small-scale actions.

The paper includes a case study of Conecta, an online game that was created by the Brazilian community foundation ICom. Conecta’s main goals are to create awareness about community issues, to share knowledge and data about local challenges and to stimulate actions by providing links to tools and resources that facilitate the players’ engagement. Along with online game play, players are organized into flash mobs which meet in person once every month or two in order to accomplish tasks like cleaning a beach. Bussacos highlights the possibilities of such game-based organizing, but he also discusses the challenges in both building a wide player base and ensuring that games include entertaining gameplay while still being content driven. While this paper focuses on community foundations within Brazil, its lessons are applicable to any foundation seeking to creatively promote youth engagement using technology.
 

Henrique Conca Bussacos - Full text

Federica Corda, 2017 Fellow on Community Philanthropy, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Italy

Active Citizenship in a Digital Age


Rūta Dimanta, 2017 Fellow on Community Philanthropy, Riga, Latvia

Challenges of philanthropic organizations in the digital era

Abstract:
The purpose of this position paper is to look at how digital era socio-economic forecasts could potentially affect society and the development of philanthropic organizations in the coming decades in the world in general and in the author’s home country of Latvia in particular. Acknowledging that as a small economy, Latvia is not a global player, the author makes the case that global trends influence every nation. If we all understand the rules of game—global changes, new challenges, and new potential—we can better prepare to adapt to new situations, make smart decisions and ensure that we are ready to face the new agendas of the coming decades. The aim is not only to respond, but also influence and take the lead in addressing society’s needs and interests.

Twenty-first century challenges are associated with rapid technological development. From the perspective of industrial development, we are at the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This revolution builds on the Digital Revolution, representing new ways in which technology becomes embedded in societies, and even the human body. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is marked by emerging technological breakthroughs in a number of fields, including robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, the Internet of things, 3D printing and autonomous vehicles. These new technologies combine the physical, digital and biological worlds and will impact all disciplines, including philanthropy. Philanthropic organizations will face questions that do not have answers yet.

Nevertheless, the conversation must start now.

You cannot wait until a house burns down to buy fire insurance on it. We cannot wait until there are massive dislocations in our society to prepare for the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

-- Robert J. Shiller (2013 Nobel Laureate in Economics and Professor of Economics, Yale University), at the 2016 World Economic Forum Annual


Joanna Catherine Fultz, 2015 Senior Fellow, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Young adult community engagement: A challenge for today’s community foundations

Abstract:
Over the past 20 years, Community Foundations across North America and internationally have invested heavily in developing and implementing Youth in Philanthropy programmes and related youth- engagement initiatives. Up to this point in time, the majority engaged have been members of the Millennial generation: those born between 1982 and 2003.

The New Wave examines how, in an era of great generational shifts, reconnecting with program alumni and engaging the Millennial generation more broadly, is beneficial from community strengthening, donor engagement, and grantmaking perspectives.

This position paper documents the history of youth programming at community foundations, with a focus on North American trends. Global initiatives are also discussed. A wide range of existing research on the characteristics of the generation is compiled and highlighted, including: civic-mindedness; the impact of globalization; diversity; intercultural competency; intergenerational transfer of wealth; struggle for financial independence; digital interconnectedness; institutional trust levels; and giving motivations and behaviors. This evolving character profile is applied to the current work of community foundations to build recommendations for creating inclusive, authentic, and relevant platforms for re/engagement with the group.

Recommendations outline the role foundations can play as vehicles for Millennial-specific engagement in a community-strengthening and donor capacity, including: the development of alumni and intergenerational donor engagement strategies; investigating community partnerships for social enterprise; investing in asset-based giving platforms; and adapting technology to encourage democratized philanthropy.
 

Joanna Catherine Fultz - Full text

Jennifer Litchfield, 2010 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Strengthening donors, strengthening community:  Community foundations and donor advised grantmaking

Abstract:
Donor Advised Funds have become the most popular charitable giving vehicle in the United States. All Donor Advised Funds share the criterion of involvement by the donor in recommending where donated money is directed for charitable purposes. Such an approach offers the chance for direct community involvement, yet raises challenges about measuring efficacy. How can community foundations best assess the effectiveness of Donor Advised Funds at strengthening communities?

In this paper, Jennifer Litchfield reviews the laws and practices governing Donor Advised Funds in the United States and several other countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom. She recommends that Donor Advised Funds adopt a learning culture approach, pooling information and constant analysis in order to better evaluate how such funds are spent. The Greater Milwaukee Foundation is used as a case study of an organization that has revamped its evaluative system toward measuring service impact, a model that Litchfield recommends that other organizations investigate. Litchfield also analyzes the positive benefits of technology and community member leadership in measuring the impact of Donor Advised Funds.


Lynnette Gacheri Micheni, 2012 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Naivisha, Kenya

Towards sustainable youth-led projects and organizations in post-conflict communities: Lessons, approaches and strategies from community foundations

Abstract:
Recent economic growth and increasing levels of education in some sub-Saharan nations like Kenya have corresponded with observable growth in citizen involvement in grassroots community organizations. Engaging with the large youth population is essential to the success of such groups. Over 70,000 youth groups exist in Kenya alone, over half of which operate in post-conflict areas. In this paper, Lynnette Micheni investigates how the community foundation model can mobilize the energies of Kenyans between the ages 18-35. Community foundations rely on secure funding and developing strong donor relations which often presents challenges to organizations centered on youth involvement. Seeking examples of community foundations that successfully promote youth participation, Micheni casts her net widely; her case studies include the Community Foundation of Northern Ireland and Youth Advisory Councils of America.

Ms. Micheni includes in her paper several principles which could govern the promotion of youth-led community philanthropy. These recommendations include a focus on multigenerational cooperation, where the experience and contacts of older members are combined with the innovations of youth members. To avoid “funder mission creep,” where local realities are ignored due to centralized planning from major donors, Micheni argues that youth leadership can keep a foundation flexible in its strategies. Micheni also urges that community organizations concentrate on training and professionalizing youth members, which in turn will prepare youth to assume leadership positions within community organizations.


Tasha Tucker, 2011 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Charleston, North Carolina, United States

How philanthropy can engage the next generation of donors: Strategies for community foundations

Abstract:
Utilizing the skills and interests of the tech-savvy younger generation is critical to the future of community foundations. Community foundations have begun to make hesitant steps to engage younger generation participation. Such engagement is essential for foundations, yet presents new challenges. In her research, Tasha Tucker addresses the following questions: how do community foundations fit in with digitally connected individuals capable of creating their own networks? How does the next generation perceive community engagement and their philanthropic role? What type of cultivation methods should community foundations utilize to engage these potential donors? What do philanthropic leaders need to do to be effective in capturing the next generation of donors to engage with community foundations?

In this paper, Tucker reviews tendencies of the Millennial generation, those born between 1981 and the early 2000s, highlighting how technology and social networking shape youth choices. Tucker lists online charitable platforms, as well as online watchdog organizations which utilize the Millennials’ ability to network information through technology. Examples of next generation engagement initiatives are highlighted to provide examples from community foundations, philanthropic groups, and diaspora funds that are successful in drawing the participation of the next generation. From case studies, Tucker draws a series of general proposals that foundations should implement in order to recruit Millennials.

OTHER

Rana Zincir Celal, 2010 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Lefkosa, Cyprus

Social responsibility as a paradigm for change in North Cyprus

Abstract:
Social responsibility is gaining ground in North Cyprus. Recent surveys and research conducted by Rana Zincir attest to a growing public awareness and appreciation of the civic sector. At the same time, civic initiatives which target social issues, such as health, children, education and the environment are becoming more prominent in public discussion. However, current social responsibility efforts remain fragmented, diffuse and sporadic.

Zincir elaborates on four key areas of improvement that are necessary to catalyze a new era of social responsibility: improving the credibility and performance of the civic sector; political encouragement of private initiatives for the public good; fostering cross sector public and private relationships; and mobilizing the talent of young people in North Cyprus. Zincir examines how countries like Pakistan, the Philippines, and Brazil have addressed these issues. Drawing from these case studies, she proposes several recommendations relevant to Cypriot organizations, including the need for a self-certification program for the civic sector, targeted outreach to the business community, and passing legislation demonstrating public commitment to cross sector alliances to solve social issues.


Carly Dawn Hare, 2006 Emerging Leaders Fellow, Longmont, Colorado, United States

A model for reciprocal relationships between grantmaking institutions and the Native American community

Abstract:
Crossing the Divide examines current and future roles of philanthropy and community foundations within Native American communities. It examines current efforts and research, while questioning the feasibility for a community foundation to serve as a model for reciprocal relationships between the mainstream funding and Native worlds.

The main research questions addressed: How are mainstream foundations currently supporting Native national and regional nonprofits and Tribal programs? How do Native national and regional nonprofits and the philanthropic sector collaborate to increase funding through cultural appropriate avenues? Could a regional or Tribal community foundation serve as a connection between culturally appropriate organizations and mainstream funding sources?

This paper seeks to develop recommendations that will help bridge the divide. Recommendations were made after literature review, an analysis of foundation giving from 2001-2004, and surveys and interviews with mainstream funders and Native nonprofit professionals. Crossing the divide is not just a matter of cultural competency, but integrating native integrity and culture into philanthropic models.


Shani Horowitz-Rosen, 2017 International Fellow on Community Philanthropy, Kfar Saba, Israel

Communication strategies for philanthropic organizations: Examining the roles and functions of mass media


Natalya Kaminarskaya, 2001 International Fellow, Moscow, Russia

Donors forums and the other donor support organizations – international models and recommendations for Russia

Abstract:
Foreign donors and grantmaking institutions in Russia have implemented a few successful joint projects, and the Russia Donors' Forum (RDF), a non-formal coalition of grantmakers, was recently established. The purpose of Natalya Kaminarskaya's paper is to analyze some of the existing types of donor support structures and provide recommendations for the future development of the RDF. The paper includes a series of European and North American case studies, a discussion of appropriate international models, and suggestions for the development of professional philanthropic institutions in Russia. Her concluding section provides recommendations for the roles and functions, membership activities, services provided, finances, and objectives of the RDF.


Elizabeth Rose Nandudu, 2000 International Fellow, Mbale, Uganda

Comparative models for addressing the needs of street children

Abstract:
In her study, Elizabeth Nandudu addresses the serious and, in some regions of the world, growing problem of street children. Her approach is comparative and she attempts to delineate best practices employed by nonprofits in the United States (Covenant House) and Brazil (the Abrinq Foundation) that could be adopted to strengthen efforts underway in Kampala. The paper develops a conceptual framework that includes causes, conditions, methods of survival, and the societal implications for a country having a large population of homeless children. She offers several solution models (rescue, child empowerment, re-integration, and family empowerment) and suggests that an “alternative community foundation model” could best integrate the diverse and multi-level efforts (from fundraising to programming and networking) needed to successfully combat homelessness among children. 


George Varughese, 2008 Senior Fellow, Kathmandu, Nepal

Beyond giving: Supporting policy change for remaking Nepal

Abstract:
Writing at the moment of a critical juncture in Nepal’s modern history, as the bloody Maoist insurgency has ended and a new constitution is being formulated, George Varughese looks at the best practices of community foundations in various countries with the aim at setting up a similarly constituted foundation in Nepal. He argues that community foundations can help promote civil society development in Nepal, especially if such foundations empower local leadership. Varughese proposes the establishment of the Nepal Policy Foundation (NPF), a philanthropic enterprise in Nepal to fund grantmaking and other support activities for policy change through alliances with existing likeminded nonprofits in Nepal. Although such an organization would be composed of Nepalese, Varughese recommends that outside organizations, like the Asia Foundation, be consulted for technical and infrastructure assistance. Also, Varughese hopes that the new community foundation would reach out to share information and resources with Nepalese organizations like the group Social Science Baha.