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Interviews and op-eds

Can mass mobilization wars increase income inequality? (Brave New Europe, 22 October)

Global and international inequalities (in French, 21 October)

Migration and trade: complements or substitutes? (Global Policy, 15 October)

Not by (free) trade alone (in Serbian; Pescanik October 15)

Not by (free) trade alone (In German; October 10)

The perverse seductiveness of Fernando Pessoa (Global Policy; 2 October)

Interview with Jornal de Negocios (in Portuguese;  27 September)

How I lost my past (in French; September)

How I lost my past (in Serbian, Pescanik; 23 September)

Interview with Knack Belgian magazine (in Flemish; 20 September)

How I lost my past (in German; Makronom September 19)

Multi-party kleptocracies rather than illiberal democracies (in French; September 14)

Interview for the Malaysian BFM Radio (September 7)

How China became a market economy (review of Julian Gerwitz’s book) (Global Policy, September 7)

English language and American solipsism (in Spanish, August 30)

English language and American solipsism (Global Policy; August 15)

Interview for (in French; 13 August)

Colonialism applied to Europe: a review of Mazower’s “Hitler’s Empire” (Globalist, August 5)

Multi-party kleptocracies rather than illiberal democracies (Global Policy, August 4)

Multi-party kleptocracies rather than illiberal democracies (in German, Makronom, August 1)

Multi-party kleptocracies rather than illiberal democracies (in Turkish; July 31)

Inevitability of the Need for Economic Growth—the n-th time (Global Policy, July 21)

The simplicity of views regarding civil conflicts (Global Policy; July 4)

Interview for Serbian newspaper Danas (in Serbian; June 15)

Misunderstood History: The “Liberal Order” Has Been Challenged Repeatedly, Not Just Now (Swarajyia, June 3)

Interview for Neues Deutschland (in German; 30 May)

Is neo imperialism the only wasy to development? (in French, 25 May)

The West is mired in soft development, China wants to do ‘hard’ stuff (The Guardian, 17 May)

Migration and welfare state (The Globalist; 16 May)

Why we care about inequality? (The Guardian, 2 May)

Interview for NBC Dutch paper (in Dutch; 14 April)

Interview for Die Tijd Belgian newspaper (in Flemish; 14 April)

Welfare state in the age of globalization (in Turkish: 10 April)

Interview for PBS (30 March)

Welfare state in the age of globalization (in French, 27 March)

Machiavelli as an economist (in Italian, 25 March)

Interview for La Vanguardia (in Spanish; 22 March)

Interview for El Pais (in Spanish; 22 March)

Why 20th century tools cannot be used to address 21st century income inequality? (in French; 13 March)

Global inequality: A new approach for the age of globalization (book talk in Oxford; Social Europe, March 3)

Interview for Belgian weekly HUMO (in Flemish; Jan 27)

Trump: The West’s Gorbachev? (The Globalist, 20 January)

Interview for Slovenian daily Delo (in Slovene; 18 January)

Interview for a Swiss internet platform Watson (16 January)

Desigualdad en el tiempo del populismo (Agenda Publica, January 10)

Robotics or fascination with anthropomorpism (Social Europe, 26 September)

Interview with Bloomberg (25 October)

Interview for Profil (in German; 12 November)

Podcast for Social Europe (13 November)

Interview for OZY website in San Francisco (23 November)

Wanted: Equal Opportunity Globalization (Yale Global online, 29 November)

Understanding Global Inequality (Social Europe, 6 December)

Interview for The New Republic (13 December)

"Global inequality: a new approach for the age of globalization", (book talk in Oxford, October 2016)

Response to Adam Corlett’s “Examining an elephant: globalisation and the lower middle class of the rich world” (24 September 2016)

Putting a number on global inequality is long overdue  (Financial Times, 18 September 2016)

Interview for Le Monde (20 July 2016)

Interview for Mint (8 July 2016)

 “The greatest reshuffle of individual incomes since the Industrial revolution” (VoxEU, 26 June 2016)

Interview for Gawker (2 June 2016)

Introducing Kuznets waves (24 February 2016)

The hidden economics behind the rise of Donald Trump (1 March 2016)


Interview on global inequality on Brian Lehrer Show, New York (January 12)

Interview for Marketplace, Washington January 15

Joseph Stiglitz on inequalty January 6, Social Europe blog

National Vices, Global Virtue: is the world becoming more equal? CGD blog, January 20

Interview wth the Israeli magazine, Calcalist, January 26. (published Feb 12)

Inteview with China Radio International, 3 February.

Op-ed piece for Al Jazeera on human capital

Interview for Cooperative radio in Vancouver (March 15, 2015)

Interview for Wiener Zeitung in Paris (10 April)

Long interview for the Czech margazine “Horporaske noviny” in Paris (11 April)

Interview for INET own TV (podcast) (10 april)

Rule of robots in Siglitz and Marx in “Sin permiso” (26 April)

Global inequality of opportunity in EU Vox (May 6, 2015)

Interview for El Pais in Madrid (23 June 2015); published 6 September

Migration into Europe: A Problem with No Solution

Interview for a Spanish economic magazine Finanzas (24 June)

Oped piece for Al Jazeera on Grexit.

Oped on the global middle class for WorldPost

Interview for UNDP in Zagreb.


How we can strengthen the worrd's fragile middle class? Financial Times (April  28)

Q&A with Eduardo Porter, New York Times (March 18)

Global Economics between Jerusalem and Athens, The Globalist (March 13)

A short review of income inequality in China [ppt]

Global income inequality from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession (Ch. Lakner and B. Milanovic), Winter 2013-14 [ppt]

The World Post, 1st issue: “Winners and losers of globalization” (January 21, 2014).

Inequality in the United States and China”, Harvard Business Review blog (January 27, 2014).

Why income inequality is here to stay”, A blog for Harvard business Review (January)
Interview for CNBC (January 17, 2013).
Interview for the Pacific Standard (January 22, 2013)
Interview for Global Post (January 31, 2013)

Inequality and Democratic Capitalism”, The Globalist (March 15, 2013)
Interview for Al Jazeera The Rise of The Global South (March 18, 2013)
A piece in La Vanguardia Dossier, Se ha acabado el ‘periodo especial’ del capitalismo?

The Balkans: Another European conundrum”, The Globalist (June 1, 2013)
Interview for Canada MSN on global inequality (June 4, 2013)
Los Balcanes y el futuro del Europa”, El Pais (July 3, 2013).
The end of a long era”, a blog post on World Bank Research’s Let’s talk development, (July 19, 2013)
Interview for Washington Post Blog WorldView  (October 7, 2013)

The economic causes of migration”, The Globalist (Ocober 22, 2013). Also published in El Pais.

Finding a path to shared prosperity”, World Bank blog (October 25. 2013)

An interview for Slovenian magazine “Objektiv” (28 December 2013)

Interview for El Publico, Portuguese newspaper, website. (February 21)
Interview for Observatoire des inegalites, a French blog (February 27, 2012)
Interview for Dinheiro, Portuguese business magazine (February 2012)
Interview with Mimi Geerges, NPR-affiliate show (March 7, 2012)
Ending the rich-world bias in global economic statistics”, The Globalist (March 21, 2012)
Adam Smiths of Capital, Friedrich Lists of Labor”, The Globalist (June 4, 2012)
Income inequality in the Europe vs. US: Regional vs. social/class inequality, Inequality in Focus, World Bank PREM Newsletter (June 2012)
Video interview for Global Policy Journal (17 July 2012)
Interview for the Pacifica radio Ian Masters’ Background Briefing (August 23, 2012)
Interview for Rusia Hoy (published August 31, 2012)
The real winners and losers of globalization”, The Globalist (October 25, 2012).
Interview for Novi List, a Croatian daily (November 11, 2012).
The Real Winners and Losers of Globalization”, World Bank’s let’s talk development blog (December 14, 2012)

Global inequality: A new approach for the age of globalization (book talk in Oxford; Social Europe, March 3)

Income Inequality: From National to Global
Reading List

Part 1.1
Simon Kuznets (1955), “Economic Growth and Income Inequality

Branko Milanovic (2014), “Return of patrimonial capitalism: Review of Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st century

Joseph Persky (1992, “Retrospective: Pareto’s Law

Branko Milanovic (2012), “Globalization and inequality”,
Part 1.2
Facundo Alvaredo and Leo Gasparini (2013), “Recent trends in poverty and inequality in developing countries

Alvaredo, Facundo, Anthony B. Atkinson, Thomas, Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez (2013), “The Top 1 Percent in International and Historical Perspective

Ravi Kanbur and Xiaobo Zhang (2005), “Fifty Years of Regional Inequality in China: A Journey through Central Planning, Reform, and Openness
Part 2.1
Christoph Lakner and Branko Milanovic (2013), “Global income distribution: From the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession

Branko Milanovic (2013), “Global income inequality in the numbers: in history and now—an overview

Part 2.2
Branko Milanovic (2014), “Global inequality of opportunity:  how much of our income is determined by where we live

Amartya Sen (2010), “Adam Smith and the contemporary world


Branko Milanovic

• Core Faculty, Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality
• Visiting Presidential Professor, Graduate Center - CUNY
• LIS Senior Scholar


Branko Milanovic is a leading scholar on income inequality. In 2014, he joined the Graduate Center as Visiting Presidential Professor and LIS Senior Scholar. Before coming to the Graduate Center, he was Lead Economist in the World Bank's research department. He is author of The Haves and the Have-Nots: A Brief and Idiosyncratic History of Global Inequality and numerous articles on the global income distribution. His most recent book is Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization (Harvard University Press 2016).

His blog on Global Inequality


Course Syllabi:
Historical Income Inequality: From Rome to Global Inequality
Global Inequality: Measurement, Analysis and Political Implications
Within-National Inequalities: From Pareto to the Kuznets Waves


Milanovic, Branko. Global inequality: a new approach for the age of globalization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2016.

Milanovic, Branko. The Haves and the Have-nots: A Brief and Idiosyncratic History of Global Inequality. New York: Basic, 2011.

Milanovic, Branko. Worlds Apart: Measuring International and Global Inequality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2005.

Milanovic, Branko. Income Inequality and Poverty During the Transition from Planned to Market Economy. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1998.


(with Li Yang and Filip Novokmet), "From workers to capitalists in less than two generations: A study of Chinese urban elite transformation between 1988 and 2013" (draft, July 2019).

(with Bosko Mijatovic), "Real urban wage in an agricultural economy without landless farmers: Serbia, 1862-1910" (draft, January 2019).

(with Roy van der Weide), “Inequality is bad for the growth of the poor (but not for that of the rich)”, World Bank Economic Review, 2018.

(with Thomas Hauner and Suresh Naidu), "Inequality, foreign investment and imperialism", draft March 2018.

"Increasing capital income share and its effect on personal income inequality", After Piketty, edited by H. Boushey, B. DeLong and M. Steinbaum, Harvard UP, 2017

Income level and income inequality in the Euro-Mediterranean region, c. 14-700, Review of Income and Wealth (forthcoming)

Towards an explanation of inequality in pre-modern societies: the role of colonies and high population density”,  The Economic History Review, vol. 71, No. 4, 2018, pp. 1029-1047.

"Income inequality is cyclical", Nature, vol. 537, issue 7621, September 21, pp. 479-482

(with John Roemer), "Interaction of global and national income inequalities", Journal of Globalization and Development, vol. 7, No. 1, July 2016.

"Why might the rich be indifferent to income growth of their own countries?", Economics Letters, August 2016.

(with Christoph Lakner), “Global income distribution:  from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession”,  World Bank Economic Review, published 12 August 2015

Global inequality of opportunity:  how much of our income is determined by where we live, Review of Economics and Statistics (May 2015).

"The level and distribution of income in mid-18th century France, according to François Quesnay, Journal of the History of Economic Thought (March 2015).

The return of ’patrimonial capitalism’: review of Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st century”, Journal of Economic Literature, June 2014.

(with Nicholas Sambanis)  “Explaining the demand for sovereignty”, World Bank Working Paper No. 5888, November 2011.  Revised version in Comparative Political Studies  (February 2014) .
The inequality possibility frontier: extensions and new applications, World Bank Working Paper No. 6449,  May 2013.

Global income inequality in numbers: in history and now”, Global Policy, May 2013, pp. 198-208.

Globalization and inequality”, Introduction to the volume of selected readings, B. Milanovic (ed.), Globalization and inequality,  Edward Elgar, 2012.

Global Inequality: From Class to Location, from Proletarians to Migrants, Global Policy, vol. 3, No. 2, May 2012, pp. 124-133.

Global inequality recalculated and updated: the effect of new PPP estimates on global inequality and 2005 estimates”, Journal of Economic Inequality, volume 10, issue 1, 2012, pp. 1-18.

(with Lire Ersado), “Reform and inequality during the transition: An analysis using panel household survey data, 1990-2005”, in Economies in Transition: The Long-Run View, edited by Gerard Roland, Palgrave, 2012, pp. 84-108.

"A short history of global inequality: The past two centuries", Explorations in Economic History, vol. 48, (November) 2011, pp. 494-506.

(with Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson), “Pre-industrial inequality”, Economic Journal, March 2011, pp. 255-272.   

"Four critiques of the redistribution hypothesis: An  assessment", European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 26, No. 1, March 2010, pp. 147-154.

(with Shale Horowitz and Karla Hoff),  "Turnover in Power as a Restraint on Investing in Influence: Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition", Economics and Politics, vol. 22, No. 3, November 2010, pp. 329-361.

Preindustrial inequality”, entry for the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. December 2009.

(with Shale Horowitz and Karla Hoff) “Government turnover: concepts, measures, and applications”, European Journal of Political Research, vol. 48, March 2009, pp. 107-129.

(with Leif Wenar) “Are Liberal Peoples Peaceful?”, Journal of Political Philosophy,  Volume 17, Issue 4, pp. 462 – 486, July 2009.

Rules of redistribution and foreign aid: A proposal for a change in the rules governing eligibility for foreign aid”, Interventions, vol. 5, No. 1, 2008, pp. 197-214.

Qat Expenditures in Yemen and Djibouti: An Empirical Analysis”, Journal of African Economies, Vol. 17, Issue 5, pp. 661-687, 2008. 

(with Francois Bourguignon, Francisco Ferreira and Martin Ravallion) “Global Inequality and Poverty”, entry for the Princeton Encyclopedia of the World Economy, 2008.

(with Rafael Munoz de Bustillo), “La desigualidad de la distribucion de la renta en America Latina: Situacion, evolucion y factores explicativos”, America Latina Hoy, April 2008, vol. 48, pp. 15-42.

Where in the world are you? Assessing the importance of circumstance and effort in a world of different mean country incomes and (almost) no migration”, World Bank Working Paper No. 4493, January 2008.
Global income inequality”, Soundings, Winter 2007, No. 37, pp. 58-65.
Globalization and Inequality” in David Held and Ayse Kaya (eds.), Global Inequality: Patterns and Explanations, London: Polity Press, 2007, pp. 26-49.

An estimate of average income and inequality in Byzantium around year 1000”, Review of Income and Wealth, vol. 52, No. 3, 2006, pp. 449-470.

Global Income Inequality: A Review”, World Economics, vol. 7, No. 1, January-March 2006, pp. 131-153.

La desigualdad mundial de la renta: qué es y por qué es importantePrincipios: Estudios de Economia Politica, No. 5, 2006, pp. 35-56.
Inequality and determinants of earnings in Malaysia, 1984-97”, Asian Economic Journal, vol. 20, No. 2, June 2006, pp. 191-216.
(with Lyn Squire), “Does Tariff liberalization increase wage inequality? Some empirical evidence”, in Ann Harrison (ed.), Globalization and Poverty, Chicago University Press, 2006.
Economic integration and income convergence: not such a strong link?”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 2006. vol. 88, No, 4, November 2006. pp. 659-670.
Why did the poorest countries fail to catch up?”, Carnegie Working Paper No. 62, September 2005.

Half a world: regional inequality in five great federations”, Journal of Asia Pacific Economy, vol. 10, No. 4, November 2005, pp. 408-445.

Globalization and Goals: Does Soccer Show the Way?”, Review of International Political Economy, vol. 12, No.5, December 2005, pp. 829-850.

Can We Discern the Effect of Globalization on Income Distribution? Evidence from Household Budget Surveys", World Bank Economic Review, No. 1, 2005, pp. 21-44.

Why We All Care About Inequality (But Are Loath to Admit It))”, Challenge Magazine, November-December 2007, vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 109-120.

(with Mark Gradstein), “Does Liberté=Egalité? A Survey of the Empirical Links Between Democracy and Inequality with Some Evidence on the Transition Economies”, Journal of Economic Surveys, vol. 18 No. 4,  pp. 515-537, September 2004.

(with Jean  Lanjouw, Peter Lanjouw. Stefano Paternostro). “Relative Price Shifts, Economies of Scale and Poverty during Economic Transition”, Economics of Transition, vol. 12, September 2004, pp. 509-536.

The Two Faces of Globalization: Against Globalization as We Know it”, World Development, April 2003, pp. 667-683.

Is inequality in Africa really different?”, World Bank Research Working Paper No.  3169, Mat 2003.

Do we Tend to Overestimate poverty gaps? The Impact of Equivalency Scales on the Calculation of the Poverty Gap”, Applied Economics Letters, vol. 9, pp. 69-72, 2002. 

(with Shlomo Yitzhaki),  "Decomposing World Income Distribution: Does the World Have a Middle Class?", Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 48, No. 2, June 2002, pp. 155-178.

True World Income Distribution, 1988 and 1993: First Calculations Based on Household Surveys Alone”, The Economic Journal, vol. 112, No. 476, January 2002, pp. 51-92.

(with Ethan Kapstein), “Responding to Globalization: Social Policy in Emerging Market Economies”, Global Social Policy, pp. 191-212, No. 2, 2001.

(with Mark Gradstein and Yvonne Ying), "Democracy and Income Inequality: An Empirical Analysis", World Bank Policy Research Working Papers Series  No. 2561,  February  2001.

The Median Voter Hypothesis, Income Inequality and Income Redistribution: An Empirical Test with the Required Data”, European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 16, No.3, September 2000, pp. 367-410.

"Nations, Conglomerates, and Empires: The Trade-off between Income and Sovereignty", in D. Salvatore, M. Svetlicic, and J. Damijan (eds.) Small Countries in a Global Economy: New Challenges and Opportunities, Palgrave,  2000, pp. 25-70.

(with Branko Jovanovic) “Change in the Perception of the Poverty Line during the Times of Depression: Russia 1993-96", World Bank Economic Review, vol. 13, No. 3, September 1999, pp. 531-560. 

"A Simple Way to Calculate the Gini Coefficient, and Some Implications", Economics Letters 56, 1997, pp. 45-49.

Determinants of Cross-country Income Inequality: An Augmented Kuznets' Hypothesis", World Bank PRE Working Papers Series, No. 1246, January 1994.

"The Gini-type Functions: An Alternative Derivation", Bulletin of Economic Research, 1:1994, pp. 81-90.